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    • Discuss the significance of establishing and maintaining communication with families.
    • Reflect on your own ideas and experiences associated with communicating with families.
    • Plan activities that promote communication with all families in your program.


    "Parents are the key mediators of experience for infants and toddlers, and...their influence is critical during this period of rapid development" - Powell & Dunlap, 2010


    Close your eyes and picture the qualities you want in your communication with families. What do you notice about the words you use, tone, pace and the feel of your everyday actions and routines? Ask yourself, “What am I doing to honor communication and relationships with families?” Your most important partner in this work is the infant’s and toddler’s family. It’s helpful to find a common understanding, rhythm and approach to family communication. The enrollment process, for example, can be considered the beginning of relationships. Future daily interactions are then supported by ongoing communication, systems and policies that invite multiple opportunities for communication and collaboration.

    The information in this lesson was adapted from the Infant Toddler Family Engagement course. Refer to the Family Engagement course for more extensive discussions on various topics related to engaging and working with families in your early care and learning setting.

    Importance of Establishing Relationships and Communication with Families

    Several research studies show that positive relationships between teachers, children and families are essential to learning (Shonkoff, et al., 2000). Relationships can be built and strengthened through communication between caregivers and families that occurs during hellos and goodbyes, as well as in more formal activities such as a planned family meeting.

    All of these opportunities require you, as an infant and toddler caregiver, to be aware of many things, including tone, choice of words, and nonverbal communication such as facial expressions and body language. When you are aware of these characteristics, you can better communicate in ways that are most supportive to and respectful of families while keeping in mind this may be the family’s first experience with caregivers in an early care and learning program. Even experienced caregivers will not know more about infants and toddlers than their families. Families will be eager to know how their infant or toddler is doing, and you can support comfortable communication by offering encouraging responses and asking for clarification if something is not understood.

    You can also ensure that each moment offers sensitive communication, active listening and opportunities for making connections. Developing relationships and communicating with families can help bridge the home and care settings. Additionally, research says:

    • Programs that demonstrate and support partnering with families tend to have families that feel more confident and comfortable in supporting their children’s development (Wilcox & Weber, 2001).
    • When services incorporate practices that promote partnerships with families, outcomes for family and children are improved including parenting capabilities and positive child behavior and functioning (Dempsey & Keen, 2008; Dunst, Trivette & Hamby, 2008).

    Establishing communication and meaningful relationships with families is a critical aspect of your work, and when it comes to families of infants and toddlers with special learning needs (who may be simultaneously interacting with several different professionals from varying agencies or disciplines) establishing relationships becomes even more important. As an infant and toddler caregiver, your role in helping families develop goals for their children and coming up with ideas for achieving those goals can have a tremendous impact on these families’ lives. You will work closely with your trainer to meet the needs of young children with disabilities, but it is important for you to know some key terms.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), a federal education law, mandates the development of Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) for children who qualify for either special education or early intervention. IEPs will be completed by the local school district and IFSPs will be completed by the local early intervention agency. CYP Professionals do not complete EAPs, IEPs, or IFSPs. However, you may be asked by the family to participate on the team for a child’s IEP or IFSP. Each IEP or IFSP describes the educational program designed by the team to meet the child’s or student’s unique needs and must contain specific information about the child or student, as required by state and federal law.

    For families new to this process, your role can be very important. Families may view you as their liaison or advocate to help them understand the system, access meaningful services, and set goals that can make a difference in their infant’s or toddler’s life.

    Maintaining Ongoing Communication with Families

    Sharing information about infants and toddlers in ways meaningful to families is critical to maintaining ongoing communication. Whenever possible, use data (e.g., observations, examples of growth and development) to convey information about infants and toddlers with their families. Data can help family members understand that the information you are sharing with them is based on instances where you observed and generated information in an organized manner, as opposed to sharing things based on your personal views or opinions. As part of your work with infants and toddlers, it is likely that you collect developmental information using assessments, and it is critical that families have access to that information. This enables families to follow their infant’s or toddler’s developmental progress over time. Along the same lines, invite families to observe their child in your care setting. Schedule some time after the observation to talk about what family members noticed and address any questions they may have.

    Families will also help set the pace for their communication with you. It is important to acknowledge it can take time for families to feel safe, comfortable and friendly. Different forms of communication or ways of communicating can play an important role in easing the process. Using a combination of communication styles, or forms, with families might work best in meeting their needs. It’s also important to keep in mind there are likely to be a variety of factors that create challenges to communicating with families such as conflicting belief systems or overwhelming family problems and crises. Take a moment to think about and list a few of the barriers that you have faced when communicating and building relationships with families.

    Involving Families in Young Children’s Communication and Language Development

    The interactions that infants and toddlers have with adults influence how they develop and learn. It has become increasingly clear that the more infants and toddlers experience shared interactions and connection, the more effective they become as communicators.


    Communicating with Families

    Watch this video to learn about ways to communicate with children’s families


    Keeping relationships at the center of all your communication efforts with families can help create and maintain an environment where people are seen, heard, acknowledged and celebrated for their strengths and who they are. How would you describe your approach to first interactions with families? Think about how your efforts immediately welcome families into your early care and learning setting. In addition, consider the following:

    • Review the documents used when enrolling an infant or toddler into the program. What other documents are shared with families? How are these documents shared with families? Think about the ways these documents are connected to infants’, toddlers’ and families’ strengths and fond memories, as well as how these documents capture required information.
    • Use photos of infants, toddlers and their families throughout the care setting, as well as to identify special places to keep personal belongings.
    • Ask current families to help welcome new families.



    As an infant and toddler caregiver, you want infants, toddlers and families to feel welcomed and form strong relationships in the early care and learning setting. You also recognize the importance of keeping infants and toddlers connected to their families when they are with you. Download and print the Role of the Family Activity. Check off all of the ways in which you feel families can be involved with you and the program. Next, share and discuss your responses with a trainer, coach or supervisor.

    It’s likely you checked off all the boxes and added several of your own. Families can be involved and take part in all of the activities highlighted within the form. Cohen and Kaufman (2005) state: “Families are considered to be full participants in all aspects of the design, implementation, and evaluation for programs and services for their young children”.



    Creating a welcome book for families is a way to compliment the formal parent handbook they receive and offer an additional opportunity to introduce yourself, the early care and learning setting, etc. Download and print the Create a Welcome Book for Families Activity for helpful suggestions when creating a Welcome Book for families in your program.


    Family involvementParticipation of the most important people in a child’s life in school and classroom-related events




    Your supervisor, trainer, or coach asks how you support communication with infants and toddlers in your classroom. You respond by saying…


    True or False? Using data such as observations or examples of growth and development is not a meaningful way to share information with families of infants and toddlers.


    Which of the following may help strengthen communication with families?

    References & Resources

    Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

    Center for Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation. Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. Retrieved from

    Cohen, E., & Kaufmann, R. (2005). Early childhood mental health consultation. DHHS Pub. No. CMHS- SVP0151. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

    Connell, C. M., & Prinz, R. J. (2002). The Impact of Childcare and Parent-Child Interactions on School Readiness and Social Skills Development for Low-Income African American Children. Journal of School Psychology 40(2): 177–93.

    Dempsey, I., & Keen, D. (2008). A review of processes and outcomes in family-centered services for children with a disability. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28, 42-52.

    Dunst, C., Trivette, C., & Hamby, D. (2008). Research synthesis and meta-analysis of studies of family-centered practices (Winterberry Press Monograph Series). Asheville, NC: Winterberry Press.

    Godwin, A., & Schrag, L. (1996). Building Relationships with Parents. In Setting Up for Infant/Toddler Care: Guidelines for Centers and Family Child Care Homes (pp. 51-52). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

    Green, B. L., McAllister, C. L., & Tarte, J. M. (July 2004). The strengths-based practices inventory: A tool for measuring strengths-based service delivery in early childhood and family support programs. Families in Society: A Journal of Contemporary Human Services.

    Keyser, J. (2007). From Parents to Partners: Building a family-centered early childhood program. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.

    National Association for the Education of Young Children (2015). Engaging Diverse Families.

    NAEYC for Families:

    Powell, D. & Dunlap, G. (2010) Family-focused interventions for promoting social-emotional development in infants and toddlers with or at risk for disabilities. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention.

    Shonkoff, J.P., Phillip, D., & the Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development. (2000). From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, Academy of Science.

    Trawick-Smith, J. W. (2014). Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective, (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

    Walker D, Greenwood C, Hart B, Carta J. Prediction of school outcomes based on early language production and socioeconomic factors. Child Development. 1994; 65(2):606-621.

    Weiss, H., Caspe, M., & Lopez, M.E. (2006). Family Involvement in Early Childhood Education. Family Involvement Makes a Difference (1): Spring. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Retrieved from:

    Wilcox, M.J. & Weber, C.A. (2001). Relationship-based practice in early intervention. Washington, D.C.: Poster presentation at the NAEYC National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development.

    Zero to Three (2015). Effective Communication with Parents.