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    Objectives
    • Distinguish between child abuse or neglect and poor caregiving practices (violations of policy)
    • List the policies and procedures in your program that prevent child abuse and neglect.

    Learn

    Learn

    Know

    Most of us become child development professionals because we love working with young children. It is difficult imagining anyone in our profession intentionally harming a child. Unfortunately, it has occurred in child care and other youth-serving organizations. Your program has policies in place that help protect you and protect children. This lesson will help you learn about these policies.

    Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Center Settings

    The Department of Defense makes every effort to ensure the safety and well-being of children involved in DoD facilities, such as schools and child-development centers, or DoD-sponsored activities, such as youth sports or recreation programs. This includes conducting thorough background checks and training all staff and volunteers involved with these facilities and programs.

    Facility Operations

    Your building has been designed and furnished to prevent opportunities for child abuse. Watch this video to learn more.

     

    Facilities that Protect Children from Harm

    Learn how your facility has been designed to keep children safe

    Your program also has policies and procedures in place to prevent child abuse and neglect. Take some time to learn about your program’s specific procedures. Here is an overview of ways your program prevents child abuse and neglect:

    Hiring & Staffing Procedures

    All staff members are carefully screened before hiring. Background checks are conducted and records are maintained. While your background check is in process, you will not work alone with children. All children must remain under the supervision of an employee who has passed the background check.

    A staff member who has been accused of child abuse or neglect in the program will be reassigned to a position without contact with children while the case is investigated. Records will be maintained, so individuals with a record of committing child abuse or neglect are not re-hired at different facilities or installations.

    Maximum Group Size and Accountability

    Your program follows standards for high-quality early care and education settings. Guidelines for group sizes and adequate adult supervision minimize the risk of child abuse and neglect. You will learn more about adult-child ratios and maximum group size in the Safety course.

    Staff-to-child ratios have two parts: (a) the number of children per staff member and (b) the maximum group size.

    NAEYC program standards (2007), the American Academy of Pediatrics (2011), and the National Early Childhood Accreditation (NECPA) provide guidelines for ratios and group sizes. For example, NAEYC recommends a maximum group size of 20 for children ages 4 and 5 (ratio 1:10). If the majority of the class is 3 years old, the maximum recommended group size drops to 18 (ratio 1:9). The group sizes and ratios are guidelines. Your specific program may have different standards based on level of staff support, training, and monitoring such as video or closed circuit television.

    In Air Force Child Development Centers, the maximum group size is 24 children. Staff-to-child ratios are maintained at 1:12 for preschool classes.

    In Marine Corps Child Development Centers, the maximum group size is 24 children. Staff-to-child ratios are maintained at 1:12 for preschool classes.

    In Army Child Development Centers the maximum group size for this age range is 20 unless the room has been designed for 30 preschool children. Staff-to-child ratios are maintained at 1:10.

    There are several important strategies for ensuring all children are accounted for at all times (Caring for Our Children, 2011, p. 65).

    • Count children by matching name to face.
    • Count on a scheduled basis, at every transition, and when leaving one area and arriving at another. You should count children approximately every 15 minutes.
    • Be sure you can state the number of children in your care at all times.
    • Record the count on an attendance sheet or pocket card.
    • Note any children who leave the group (i.e., go with another adult to get the breakfast cart, those who are picked up early).

    Your program will have additional requirements with regard to maintaining accountability. Talk to your T&Cs about your specific program requirements.

    Guidance and Discipline Policy

    Your program has a guidance and discipline policyMIL (or Service equivalent) that represents best practices in the field. In the Explore section of this lesson, you will work with your manager to get a copy of the Guidance and Discipline policy for your program. This policy statement describes acceptable and unacceptable forms of guidance and discipline in your program. Here are a few examples of acceptable and unacceptable practices:

    Acceptable Guidance and Discipline Practices

    Unacceptable Guidance and Discipline Practices

    • Recognizing, reinforcing, and encouraging appropriate behavior (“You helped your friend pick up the toys. Thank you.”)
    • Redirecting a child to an alternate behavior (“It’s not safe to jump here, but you can jump on the carpet. Let’s turn on music.”)
    • Providing a nurturing and supervised environment for a child to calm down (“Let’s take a deep breath and sit down for a minute.”
    • Guiding a child gently by the shoulder or hand (“I’m going to help you walk to the door.”)

       

    • Corporal punishment (spanking, paddling, whipping, hitting, etc.)
    • Belittling or shaming
    • Isolation in a locked room, closet, box, etc.
    • Withholding food, water, or physical activity

    Child Accountability and Supervision: Admission and Release

    Your program has standard operating procedures for the admission and release of children. Learn about your program’s policies related to releasing children. Children should only be released to:

    • Parents or legal guardians
    • Individuals the parents or legal guardians have authorized in writing
    • In emergencies, legally authorized individuals such as emergency medical responders, police, or child welfare workers

    Unknown individuals who arrive to pick up a child should be asked for photo identification before proceeding to the child’s classroom. Front desk staff will verify the individual has the authorization to pick up the child and then notify the classroom that someone other than the parent is picking the child up.

    Open-Door Policy

    Parents and families should have access to all parts of the building while their child is in the program’s care. This does not mean strangers can roam the building. Rather, programs must provide controlled access (sign-in, secure entrances). Providing an open door to families makes the program more family-friendly, encourages partnerships between families and staff, and makes the program’s operations more transparent. There should be no “secret” spaces.

    Field Trip Procedures

    You will learn more about keeping children safe on field trips in the Safety course. In this lesson, you will learn about ways to prevent child abuse or neglect from occurring when you leave the facility. Your program has specific procedures for keeping children safe on field trips. Know and follow them. Procedures may include:

    • Obtaining your manager’s approval for trips.
    • Obtaining signed permission slips from parents and guardians.
    • Recruiting volunteers as needed.
    • Preparing for emergencies: emergency contacts, first aid kit, and signed permission slips are taken on the trip.
    • Maintaining a list of adult volunteers and staff members on the trip. Assign adults to specific supervision roles and make sure ratios are maintained by staff members.
    • Providing a “visual identity” for your group: identical t-shirts, bandanas, or hats. Do not put names on shirts or badges. These can be used by strangers to lure children into dangerous situations.
    • Count children prior to leaving, during, and returning from field trips.
    • Reviewing safety rules before and during the trip. Safety rules should include policies that prevent abuse and neglect such as:

    Common Safety Rules for Trips

    • Use the buddy system and stay with your buddy at all times.
    • Stay with the group.
    • Never get in a car or go with an adult you don’t know.

    See

    Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect in Center Settings

    Caring for children can be a stressful job. There can be a fine line between inappropriate caregiving practices and child abuse. When in doubt, talk to your manager or the FAP. In the course on Preventing Child Abuse in Center Settings, you will learn more about positive guidance strategies. Sometimes, caregiving practices cross the line into maltreatment and even abuse. You will learn more about that in the next course. This lesson focuses on clear examples of child abuse or neglect in center settings. If you see a pattern of any of these signs or behaviors, you might suspect child abuse or neglect in your setting:

    Abuse TypeSigns of Abuse

    Physical

    • A staff member grabs a child by the arm and leaves bruises.
    • A staff member uses corporal punishment like spanking or whipping.
    • A child seems frightened of a staff member.

    Sexual

    • A child refuses to go the bathroom with one particular employee.
    • A child says, “Mr. Jay’s pee-pee is bigger than mine.”

    Emotional

    • A staff member shames a child for soiling her pants or forces her to sit on the toilet.
    • A staff member nicknames a child “Evil.”
    • A staff member belittles and shames a child by saying things like, “Why are you such a baby?” or “You’re just a mean bully.”
    • A staff member threatens a child.

    Neglect

    • A staff member takes an unscheduled break and leaves the classroom out of ratio.
    • A staff member withholds food from a child as “punishment.”
    • A staff member withholds medicine because she thinks the child “doesn’t really need it.”

    Institutional Abuse and Neglect

    Learn about the tensions and procedures for reporting institutional abuse and neglect

    Do

    • Read your program’s Guidance and Touch policy. Make sure you understand it. Ask your manager any questions you might have. Follow the guidelines in the policy in all your interactions with children.
    • Communicate the value of facility security features like closed-circuit television, vision panels, fencing, and security check-in procedures.
    • Observe children for signs of abuse or neglect in the program. When you have a concern, make a report toPUBLIC Child Protective ServicesMIL FAP (or your reporting point of contact (RPOC) in Army programs) following your Service and installation policy. They will investigate.

    Explore

    Explore

    Take some time to learn about your program’s policies and procedures. Download the Reviewing the Guidance and Touch Policy activity. Talk to your administrator and get a copy of your program’s guidance, discipline, and touch policies. Read them. After you have finished reading your program’s policies, answer the questions in the Guidance Activity. Make sure you understand the policies and what they mean for your work. 

    Apply

    Apply

    You can also download the Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect Checklist. Use it to monitor how well you protect children and yourself.

    Demonstrate

    Demonstrate
    Assessment

    Q1

    Which of the following features of your facility prevents child abuse and neglect?

    Q2

    True or false? Parents shouldn't be allowed in the building because they are strangers and might hurt a child.

    Q3

    Why do you need to read and understand the Guidance and Discipline Policy?

    Q4

    Which of the following is not a sign of institutional abuse or neglect?

    Q5

    What should you do if you suspect a co-worker of child abuse or neglect?

    References & Resources

    National Center on the Sexual Behavior of Youth (2013). CHILDHOOD SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT. Retrieved from http://www.ncsby.org/content/childhood-sexual-development

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network in partnership with the National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth. Sexual Development and Behavior in Children. Retrieved from http://www.ncsby.org/sites/default/files/NCTSN%20NCSBY%20sexualdevelopmentandbehavior%202009.pdf

    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). Strategic Direction for Child Maltreatment Prevention: Preventing Child Maltreatment Through the Promotion of Safe, Stable, and Nurturing Relationships Between Children and Caregivers.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2013). Preventing Child Maltreatment and Promoting Well-Being: A Network for Action 2013 Resource Guide.