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    Objectives
    • Identify typical language and communication milestones in preschool.
    • Discuss the role adults can play in supporting the communication skills of preschool children.
    • Discuss what to do if you are concerned with a child’s development.

    Learn

    Learn
    "Communication works for those who work at it." John Powell

    Know

    Preschoolers are able and ready communicators. They communicate primarily through language, but they also rely on gestures, facial expressions, and behaviors. This next section will highlight language and communication milestones for preschool children. It will be followed by a section that discusses these milestones by introducing three aspects of language and communication that caregivers can think about: receptive language, expressive language, and conversation skills.

    Milestones

    Language and communication develop with extraordinary speed during the early childhood years. Most children babble around 6 months, say their first words at about 1 year, use combined words around the end of their second year, and by the time they are 4 and 5-year-olds, they have elaborate vocabularies and know basic grammar rules. During the preschool years, children increase their vocabulary, use longer and more complex sentences, engage in problem solving, and talk about more than just what is happening at the moment. They talk about things that happened in the past as well as things that will happen in the future. Think of how exciting it is to watch a 3-year-old grow from stringing a few words together to holding elaborate conversations! The chart below highlights preschoolers’ communication skills as they grow. Keep in mind that individual differences exist when it comes to the specific age at which preschoolers meet these milestones and that each child is unique. As you may have already learned in the Cognitive and Physical courses, milestones provide a guide for when to expect certain skills or behaviors to emerge. Think of milestones as guidelines to help you understand and identify typical patterns of growth and development, or to help you know when and what to look for as young children mature. As a preschool teacher, you can use this information, what you learn from families and your own knowledge in the interactions, experiences and environments you create for preschool children.

    Language and Communication Developmental Milestones in Preschool

    Age 3
    • Follows instructions with 2 or 3 steps
    • Can name most familiar things
    • Understands words like “in,” “on,” and “under”
    • Says first name, age, and sex
    • Names a friend
    • Talks well enough for strangers to understand most of the time
    • Says words like, “I,” “me,” “we,” and “you” and some plurals (cars, dogs, cats)
    • Carries on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentences
    Age 4
    • Tells stories
    • Sings a song or says a poem from memory, such as the “Itsy Bitsy Spider” or the “Wheels on the Bus”
    • Knows some basic rules of grammar, such as correctly using “he” and “she”
    • Can say first and last name
    • Asks questions and provides explanations
    Age 5
    • Speaks very clearly
    • Tells a simple story using full sentences
    • Uses future tense; for example, “Grandma will be here.”
    • Says name and address
    • Knows and may misapply rules of grammar (i.e., says “goed” instead of “went”)
    • Begins using “private speech”; you might hear the child’s inner monologue
    • Can define common items by use (i.e., a fork is a thing you eat with)

    Learning to communicate is a unique process and specific to each preschooler and family. Many aspects of a child’s environment may contribute to challenges with communication development. A family may wonder about their young child’s communication and language development and feel uncertain about what they are observing, as well as what to expect. As a preschool teacher, you have an opportunity to learn first from a family and consider offering additional developmental information, including possible warning signs. The Kids Included Together can be a valuable resource for you (http://www.kitonline.org), as well as the developmental milestones and act early information located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html. The table below also highlights possible warning signs for preschoolers:

    Possible Warning Signs of Language & Communication Delays in Preschoolers

    Three Year Olds
    • Drools or has very unclear speech
    • Doesn’t speak in sentences
    • Doesn’t understand simple instructions
    • Doesn’t make eye contact
    Four Year Olds
    • Can’t retell a favorite story
    • Doesn’t follow 3-part command
    • Doesn’t use “me” and “you” correctly
    • Speaks unclearly
    • Ignores other children or doesn’t respond to people outside of the family
    Five Year Olds
    • Can’t give first and last name
    • Doesn't use plurals or past tense properly
    • Doesn’t talk about daily activities or experiences
    • Doesn’t respond to people or responds only superficially

    How Preschoolers Communicate

    As you study the chart above, you may notice that some milestones are associated with children’s ability to understand and comprehend language or what others say (receptive communication), others with children’s ability to use words and speak (expressive communication), and others with their ability to engage in language exchanges with peers or adults (social engagement). Let’s take a look at how these aspects of communication unfold as part of the remarkable development of young children during from three to five years of age.

    Receptive communication refers to a child’s ability to listen and understand language. Children begin to understand more words, longer sentences, and more elaborate questions. They understand the names of most things in their daily environment and actions they see or engage in each day. Children also begin to understand new descriptive words such as “soft,” “hard,” or “smooth”, and emotion words such as “mad,” “sad,” “happy,” “scary”).

    Understanding language is closely related to young children’s cognitive development. For example, 3-year-olds begin to use and understand “why,” “when,” and “how” questions. By the time they are 4, children understand many words for colors, shapes, and sizes. Understanding language is also closely related to literacy and early math development. During the fourth year, children are learning to understand letter names and sounds and number names and meaning. Receptive language is essential for success in preschool as children need to understand how to follow directions, and listen to what teachers, other significant adults in their lives, or peers have to say.

    Expressive communication refers to children’s ability to express themselves through words, gestures, and expressions. They communicate about their actions, emotions, needs, and ideas. They also respond to what others are saying. This is clear when you watch children playing with each other: they talk about play, describe their actions and ideas, and respond to what their friends are saying and doing. Preschool children may also talk to themselves when they are engaged in difficult tasks, to think out loud, or when they are excited. For example, a child may talk to herself while she is building a high tower with blocks, saying things like “one more, don’t fall!,” or when she completes a new or challenging activity: “I finished the big puzzle all by myself!”

    Social engagement involves the understanding and use of communication rules such as listening, taking turns and appropriate ways to use sounds and facial expressions. Conversations involve both understanding (receptive communication) and expressing (expressive communication). Preschoolers learn the ways to use sounds, gestures, facial expressions and words of their family’s language(s) when adults interact, talk, read and sing with them.

    Supporting Communication, Language, and Literacy

    Effective communication skills are integral to children’s self-expression, their development of social relationships, and to their learning. The foundations for these skills begins at birth and is built throughout the early childhood years. When you engage in and sustain interactions with preschoolers based on their interests, you help strengthen the child’s role as a partner in communication. Communication and language development happen best in the context of consistent, caring and responsive relationships.

    Your role as a preschool teacher offers opportunities to support these skills throughout the day. You can use your knowledge about communication and language development alongside your observations of the children in your care. Together, this information can create opportunities to partner with children to maintain their interest through communication. For example, during mealtime with preschoolers, you can maintain eye contact, smile, repeat and add context to the preschoolers’ communication attempts, or follow a preschooler’s eyes as they look at the green vegetables on their plate and then say, “You’re looking at your green peas. What else is green?” Or, talk about who is sitting next to a child. “Who is going to sit beside you today at lunch, Tommy? Oh, look, Cassandra is going to sit beside you.”

    Your role as a preschool teacher also offers an opportunity to create an environment that provides what young children need to become good communicators early in life. A communication-rich environment is characterized by intentional and frequent use of such strategies as:

    • Learning about communication and language development in preschool children
    • Talking with and learning from families, as well as observing and identifying the developmental stage of individual preschoolers, and offering experiences and activities that can best support their development and learning
    • Adding words and ideas to best describe preschoolers’ understanding of experiences
    • Responding to to children’s communication attempts and building on what children are saying
    • Using new, complex, and interesting words in conversations
    • Following children’s leads, cues, and preferences
    • Talking with children throughout the day about the events of the day
    • Embedding language games, songs, and rhymes into daily routines and experiences
    • Asking children meaningful questions about their actions, interests, events, or feelings
    • Reading to children frequently and providing opportunities for children to engage with books and printed materials
    • Incorporating alternative ways and systems of communication based on children’s individual needs (e.g., using pictures or visual cues to foster communication)
    • Providing daily opportunities to participate in activities that help them learn new skills or practice existing skills in fun, stimulating, and supportive environments

    See

    Communication in Preschool

    Watch communication and language development across the preschool years.

    Do

    Understanding developmental milestones is an important aspect of working with young children. Learning about and understanding how preschoolers communicate will help you know how to support them in developing language and communication skills, and what kinds of learning experiences to plan in your classroom and program. Consider the following in your daily work with children in preschool:

    • Plan meaningfully: In your daily interactions with children, you can purposefully plan activities that will enable you to generate information about children and how they develop and refine their communication skills. For example, you can observe how children communicate with peers or express themselves as they engage in daily work in your classroom interest areas, how they follow directions as you lead them through activities such as circle time, or how they communicate during free play with peers. You should use this valuable observational information to plan activities that promote further development in children or to adapt goals and activities to meet the unique learning needs of individual children.
    • Be sensitive to individual children’s needs: As you engage in these observations, remember that each child is different and that sometimes children may not reach milestones as expected. However, if you are concerned with a child’s development, talk with a trainer. This may be difficult, but it can make the difference in meeting a child’s needs. Trainers can share information with families about typical development and let them know your program is available to help. If your program provides developmental screening tools, these can help begin a conversation about your concerns. You should always talk to a trainer, coach, or supervisor about ways to help the child progress in your classroom.
    • Be responsive to families’ needs and preferences: If family members approach you and share concerns about their child’s development, direct them to discuss their concerns with a trainer. The trainer is responsible when dealing with developmental concerns and he or she will begin the process for identifying or referring the child. Families of children older than age 3 could also contact their local school district. The school district can arrange a free evaluation of the child’s development for the child to receive services and support that meet his or her individual needs. Additionally, a pediatrician can perform developmental screenings and possibly refer the child to a specialist.

    Learn about the tools your program uses to help understand each child’s development. For example, your program might ask families to complete tools like the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). This tool and others like it give your program information about each child’s unique development. Talk to your trainer, supervisor, or coach to learn more about the tools and processes your program uses and who to talk to if families have questions.

    Explore

    Explore

    The activities in this section aim at helping you learn more about: (a) how children in your classroom communicate, and (b) how responsive you are when it comes to promoting children’s communication. Download, print, and complete the two activities attached. Then, share and discuss your responses with a trainer, coach, or supervisor.  If you need ideas for completing the Observing Communication activity, you can download and review the sample attached.

    Apply

    Apply

    Phonemic awareness, or the awareness that spoken language of made up of small meaningful units, is an important skill that plays a big role in reading development. For example, awareness that 't' and 'p' create two different meanings in the words 't-o-p' and 'p-o-p' illustrates phonemic awareness. Follow the link to the article, Phonemic Awareness in Young Children, from Reading Rockets and notice also the Phonemic activities near the end of the article: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/phonemic-awareness-young-children. Next, download and print the resources below to learn more about phonological awareness, and what you can do to promote this skill in preschool. Then, take a few minutes to complete the Phonologically Rich Classroom Checklist attached. If families are looking for ideas about good books for the home, you can direct them to Common Sense Media’s Best Books for Families (https://www.commonsensemedia.org/book-lists#).  This website has book lists for children from preschool through the teenage years.

    Glossary

    TermDescription
    Developmental delayThis may be suspected when children do not meet developmental milestones at the expected times. Delays can occur in any area of development
    Developmental milestonesA set of skills or behaviors that most children develop within a certain age range
    Developmental screeningA tool used to help identify children who are not developing as expected and who may need supports. Screening can be completed by pediatricians, teachers, and others who know both the child and child development well
    Expressive communicationThe ability to use words to communicate with others
    Phonemic awarenessInsight about oral language and in particular about the segmentation of sounds that are used in speech communication (International Reading Association)
    Phonological awarenessSensitivity to the sound structure of language (Yopp & Yopp, 2009)
    Positive affectDisplaying joy, interest, and alertness in interactions with others
    Private speechWhen children talk to themselves
    Receptive communicationThe ability to understand spoken words

    Demonstrate

    Demonstrate
    Assessment

    Q1

    True or false? Knowing some basic rules of grammar, such as correctly using “he” and “she,” typically occurs by age 3.

    Q2

    You have noticed that 4-year-old Kaiden is able to understand most directions but is not able to answer questions about what he is doing or who he is playing with, etc. Which of the three types of communication is Kaiden stronger in?

    Q3

    Finish this statement: If you have a concern about a child’s communication you should…

    References & Resources

    Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

    Hart, B., & Risley, T.R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2012). Early Childhood Generalist Standards for teachers of ages 3-8 (3rd ed.).

    Trawick-Smith, J. W. (2014). Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective, (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

    Yopp, H. K., & Yopp, R. H. (2009). Phonological awareness is child’s play! YC Young Children; Jan 2009; 64, 1.