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    Objectives
    • Detail examples of how you can embed opportunities for social-emotional learning and development in preschool classrooms.
    • Discuss how you can support the social-emotional skills of all children in your classroom.
    • Learn how you can promote friendships among all children in your classroom.

    Learn

    Learn

    Know

    The preschoolers in your care need daily opportunities to participate in activities that help them learn new skills and practice existing skills in fun, stimulating, and supportive environments. As you learned in Lesson One, children develop social-emotional skills in the context of their relationships with their primary caregivers and within their families and cultures. You also learned that social-emotional development in young children affects their growth later in life and therefore, it is closely linked to the development of other skills. You should embed opportunities for social-emotional learning and development through teaching language and communication skills. This is essential for promoting social-emotional competence in young children.

    Embedding Opportunities for Social-Emotional Development in Preschool

    Assessing Doing PlanningThe first step in embedding opportunities for social-emotional development and learning is getting to know the children in your classroom. Through observations, checklists, and other measures, you can gather information about children’s social interactions with peers or adults in your classroom. You can observe how and when they interact and how they express emotions throughout the day. Using this information, you can determine what is developmentally appropriate for the children in your classroom so you can provide appropriate models or needed supports. This information will help you plan what, when, and how to embed opportunities for social-emotional learning.

    After you have gathered information about children’s interactions or self-expression in your classroom, you should use it to decide what experiences you want to provide or strategies you want to use. In doing so, consider the social-emotional needs of the children in your classroom and the daily routines, experiences, and activities taking place in your classroom. For example, you can plan when and how to use developmentally appropriate language to facilitate children’s interactions with peers or what questions to ask to engage children in conversations about thoughts or emotions. In the Learn section of this lesson, you will find examples of planning and embedding opportunities for social-emotional development in daily preschool routines. With careful planning, you can arrange your classroom experiences and routines to ensure that you provide opportunities for social-emotional learning and growth throughout your day.

    Children playing with cups and waterOnce you have assessed and planned to embed opportunities for social-emotional learning, the next step is implementing your plan. In doing so, build on experiences in which the children in your classroom are already engaged. For example, during snack time, you can ask children to turn to the person seated next to them and ask how they feel. You may also provide them with pictures or labeled cards and have children talk about their emotions with peers at their table. During circle time, you can go around the group asking children how they feel and then make charts or graphs depicting the classroom emotions for that day. You may also place pictures of emotions around the circle time area and ask children to “find” an emotion.

    With careful planning, you can adapt and embed communication strategies into multiple experiences and routines in your preschool classroom. You will need to continuously assess children’s progress and adapt your strategies to continue to nurture their development as the children in your classroom learn new skills.

    Social-Emotional Learning throughout the Day!

    Watch this video to learn about embedding social-emotional skills and learning throughout the day in preschool.

    Addressing the Social-Emotional Needs of All Children in Preschool

    Children in your classroom with developmental delays or those who experience challenging life events or circumstances may also experience challenges with social-emotional skills. These challenges may influence the child’s ability to benefit from high-quality early education and to engage in positive social interactions with peers and adults. Even though challenging behaviors are typical for young children, some children show persistent challenging behaviors that may affect their overall school experience. It is important to provide children with the support they need so they can benefit as much as possible from their school experiences. For these children, you may need to adapt your curriculum, environment, and classroom experiences to enable them to be successful. Think about busy center or learning area work, large-group activities, transitions, lunch and snack time, potty time, free play time indoors and outdoors, or other classroom and program events. How do you ensure you address the needs of all children in your classroom during these times?

    You will also have to work with children’s families to ensure consistency between school and home. Families may benefit from your classroom strategies that support children’s positive behaviors.

    Some children in your care may have conditions that affect their social-emotional development, including developmental delays, autism, neurological and perceptual disorders, or language and communication delays. Children with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) have a specific plan to help them meet their education goals. Very often, these children will need changes or adaptations to curriculum, classroom environments, and daily preschool routines.

    Peer-mediated interventions involve strategies in which teachers purposefully pair children who have advanced social-emotional skills with children who are working to develop these skills. These strategies ensure that children have multiple opportunities to practice social skills during daily routines and activities. For example, you can pair children to support practice and learning of skills, such as sharing toys with a friend, reading a book with a friend, taking turns during games or activities, or responding to a friend’s request to play. Remember when considering using these strategies, you should choose peers who are socially competent, have good language and play skills, are compliant with adult requests, are well-liked by other children, and like to take on the “teacher” role with peers (Strain & Odom, 1986). You can teach these children to lead their peers who are practicing and learning social skills by: responding to a peer’s request to play, helping a peer play with a game or activity, suggesting an idea for pretend play, prompting a peer to share a toy, prompting a peer to select a game or activity, or prompting a peer to take turns with an activity or toy.

    Boys playing with wooden blocksSome children with autism or developmental disabilities will be able to engage in play and other social interactions that have verbal prompts and directions, but others will need visual supports, such as a visual schedule, to make activities, routines, or instructions understandable and meaningful.

    For children who need support understanding social situations, events, or circumstances, you may consider using social stories or scripts. These are short stories that describe social activities or behaviors to support children in learning and using appropriate social skills. They can be written by family members or teachers and are specific to an individual child’s particular needs. Social stories and scripts may be used to support children with situations like sharing, waiting in line, playing at the park, participating during center time, using the bathroom, and getting on the bus. In the Learn section of this lesson, you will find information about writing such stories.

    Other children in your care may face challenging life circumstances such as poverty, caregiver substance abuse, caregiver separation, illness, exposure to violence, abuse, neglect, or caregiver deployment. These children may require unique types of social and emotional supports that will address their particular needs and help them build resilience in dealing with these stressful events.

    When working with children who face challenges and their families, it is important to acknowledge that sometimes these challenges have multiple causes and these children may require help beyond what you can provide at school. It is important to recognize that some challenges may require a wide range of services and you may be one of several professionals supporting a child and their family.

    It is critical that you get to know the children in your classroom to be able to support their successful participation in your program experiences. Make sure all children and families feel welcome and involved. The Kids Included Together (KIT) program can be a valuable resource for ideas. You can also consider Building Blocks and Kara’s Kit. These resources from the Council for Exceptional Children Division for Early Childhood provide practical, real world ways to help children succeed in their environments.

    See

    While it’s important to provide many opportunities for children to develop their social-emotional skills, also consider that not all children learn social-emotional skills in the same way. See the following video as you think about how you might provide systematic opportunities for all children to grow and develop these important skills. The last video in this lesson discusses ways to promote friendships among all children.

    Addressing the Social-Emotional Needs of All Children

    Watch this video to learn about addressing the social-emotional needs of all children in your classroom and program.

    Promoting Friendships among All Preschoolers

    Friendship skills begin developing in young children and change over time. Friendships are important for learning social, cognitive and communication skills, and for emotional regulation. During the preschool years, children learn important social skills through their interactions with friends that will affect their social-emotional competence. They observe their peers, play near their peers, talk with their peers, take turns and share with their peers, and ultimately cooperate with peers in games and pretend play. Children who have at least one friend are more socially competent. When children play with friends, they display more positive attitudes, engage in more sophisticated play, and use more effective problem-solving strategies (Guralnick, Neville, Hammond & Connor, 2007). Consider the following strategies to promote friendship skills among children in your classroom:

    • Include plenty of toys and materials that promote social interactions in interest areas (e.g., dress-up clothes, blocks, balls, puppets, cars and trucks).
    • Arrange your classroom so there is enough space for two or more children to play side-by-side with similar toys.
    • Read books about friends, cooperation, helping each other, emotions, and empathy.Boys reading a book
    • Practice sharing and taking turns, with adult support, during snack time, circle time and other daily routines.
    • Model and ask children to help or compliment each other throughout the day.
    • Make positive comments and praise children who are playing together, sharing toys, or taking turns.
    • Include the shared interests of children in your classroom interest areas and help children take turns and play together.
    • Model talking about your own emotions and support children who are talking about their own emotions.Girls playing with blocks
    • Make suggestions to small groups of children about play themes or what they can do during play.
    • Include playground equipment and toys that involves children working together (e.g., tricycles for two children, large dump trucks or cars, wagons, sand toys).
    • Place at least two of most toys in each center or activity to encourage children to play near each other with similar toys.

    Research indicates that children with special needs are less likely to develop friendships than their peers who are developing normally. Many young children with special needs have difficulty with peer interactions (Brown, Odom, McConnell, & Rathel, 2008). If these children are not supported in social and friendship skills when they are young, they are at risk for social isolation, rejection, further social-emotional delays, and academic failure. As early childhood classrooms become increasingly inclusive, it is critical to create supportive environments that promote acceptance and tolerance for all children and their families. In the Apply section of this lesson, you will find a list of children’s books that promote acceptance and positive attitudes about children with special needs. Consider including some of these books in your classroom and school library. You should also consider the following strategies and adaptations to address the needs of children with special learning needs in your classroom and program:

    • If a child is having a difficult time completing a task or activity, ask another child who has finished the task to help.
    • Provide multiple opportunities for a child to practice using social skills and offer the child supports as needed.
    • Often, children with social-emotional difficulties have difficulties with play skills as well. If a child is having more difficulty than his or her peers playing with toys or materials, take time to teach the child how to play with the toys or materials.
    • Use visual props, large pictures, or other materials for children who are working on social skill development.
    • Set up “buddy” activities, and prearrange so that two children are paired up and go to an activity or center together. Pair a more socially competent peer with a peer who is working on social skills or pair two children who are developing a friendship.
    • Use “buddies” for children who may have a hard time with transitions or self-care routines (e.g., hand washing, getting dressed).
    • Embed a child’s interests or preferences into social games or activities and support the child in taking turns, sharing, and talking to other children. When appropriate, use the child’s interests as reinforcement for play (e.g., “The balls are for two children to play with. Let’s ask a friend to play with you!”).
    • Give children frequent praise and encouragement for using appropriate social skills throughout the day.
    • Give a child classroom jobs or roles that involve social interactions (e.g., passing out props during circle time, passing out snacks or utensils during mealtimes, passing out name tags during arrival or collecting them at departure).
    • If a child uses a daily visual schedule, embed social interactions by having an item on the schedule such as “Ask a peer to play” and support the child in asking a peer to play.
    • Some children may need specific verbal cues (e.g., “Ask Thomas for the red truck”) or suggestions for play (e.g., “Ella, you can be the baby’s mommy and Maia, you can be the doctor”).
    • Encourage family members to arrange play dates with other children from their classroom.
    • Invite family members into your classroom or organize special family events to support and encourage friendships among families.

    Promoting Friendships among All Preschoolers

    Watch this video to learn about fostering friendships among all children in preschool.

    Involving Families

    As highlighted in Lesson Three (Promoting Social-Emotional Development: High Quality Environments), families are central to their children’s social-emotional development and growth. In your daily work, make it a habit to reach out to families, work at establishing relationships, and engage in ongoing communication with families. Above all, respect their preferences and be sensitive to their unique needs and circumstances. In the Apply section of this lesson, you will find resources for families regarding children’s social-emotional development. Spend some time familiarizing yourself with these resources and consider sharing them with families of children in your classroom and program. In the Apply section of this lesson you will find resources for promoting family involvement in children’s social-emotional development.

    Do

    Children need daily opportunities to practice social-emotional skills. In your daily interactions with preschool-age children, consider the following:

    • Be responsive to children’s attempts to use social skills or express emotions. Build on what they are saying or doing.
    • Provide frequent, developmentally appropriate models through daily activities and routines.
    • Follow children’s cues and preferences.
    • Embed activities about emotions into daily routines. For example, during center time, have children play an activity with sorting, matching, or identifying emotions with friends or peers.
    • Ask children questions about their feelings, actions, interests, or life events. Reinforce them for using emotion words, appropriately sharing emotions, or demonstrating appropriate social skills. Consider creating a reinforcement system where children can earn stickers, tokens, or points for labeling their own emotions.
    • Provide puppets or stuffed animals to act out situations or events in which children were experiencing big emotions (e.g., feeling mad, sad or excited). Ask children how they think the puppets or stuffed animals are feeling. Talk about these emotions and ask children to practice using these emotions throughout the day.
    • Identify times of day when a child, or group of children, seems to be experiencing big emotions. Create small books or simple stories with pictures about these times of the day using appropriate feeling words and responses. Read the books or stories to children throughout the day and remind them to use the appropriate emotion words during these times of the day.
    • Tell families about some of the activities, experiences, or strategies you use in your classroom to help children practice social-emotional skills at home.

    In a brief article, All Children Need Friends, originally published in Teaching Young Children, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) makes the following suggestions to help preschool children develop the essential skills they need to cultivate friendships with peers:  

    Encourage Friendships to Form  

    1. Read books with themes that include sharing, compromising and listening to provide children with concrete knowledge about what it means to be a friend. 

    2. Assign partners for various activities, such as classroom chores, so children can get to know each other.  

    3. Develop some positive guidance guidelines to help children know how friends behave; for example, “hands are for building, not hitting.” 

    4. Talk about what it means to be a friend. For example, ask, “What would a friend say to a friend who is crying?” Children could illustrate their ideas, and you may want post them in your classroom.  

    Concentrate on Feelings 

    1. Help children learn to express their own feelings and empathize with how others may feel.  

    2. Share observations about emotions to help children understand how behavior affects others. (“Moxie, Joaquin feels happy because you asked him to play trucks with you.”) 

    3. Give personalized help when kids need it. You may need to ask questions, make suggestions, set limits or encourage empathy, as all kids may need a little help managing strong feelings. 

    Make Sure Your Learning Environment is Friendly 

    1. Make sure you model respectful ways of interacting, paying attention to the tone and volume of your voice. 

    2. Create comfortable areas for smaller groups (such as a reading nook) because some children may be most comfortable making friends in small group settings.   

    3. Remember to still use group activities to encourage friendships. Children need many opportunities to develop friendships and working as a group toward a common goal helps builds a sense of community. 

    For more ideas about experiences and activities to develop social-emotional skills, visit the links below:

    You can also review the articles attached below.

    Apply

    Apply

    Use the resources in this section to learn more about supporting the social-emotional development of children in your classroom and program. For more resources and practical strategies you can also visit the Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning. http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/resources/strategies.html

    Glossary

    TermDescription
    Developmental delayWhen a child is not meeting developmental milestones at the expected times; delays can occur in any area of development
    Peer-mediated interventionsStrategies in which teachers pair children who have advanced social skills with peers who are learning social skills
    Social stories or scriptsShort stories that describe social activities and behaviors used to support children in learning and using appropriate social skills

    Demonstrate

    Demonstrate
    Assessment

    Q1

    Finish this statement: The first step in embedding opportunities for social-emotional development in preschool is…

    Q2

    True or False? A social story can be used when a child needs extra support understanding a social situation.

    Q3

    A parent asks how you encourage friendship skills in your classroom. What do you say?

    References & Resources

    Berk, L. E. (2013). Child Development (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

    Brown, W., Odom, S., McConnell, S. R., & Rathel, J. M. (2008). Peer interaction interventions for preschool children with developmental difficulties. In Brown, W., Odom, S. & McConnell, S. R. (Eds.). Social Competence of Young Children: Risk, disability, and intervention, (2nd ed.). (141-165). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.

    Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning. Resources: Preschool Training Modules. Retrieved from http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/resources/training_preschool.html

    Edwards, C. C., & Da Fonte, A. (2012). The 5-Point Plan: Fostering successful partnerships with families of students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44, 6-13.

    Gray, C. A., & Garand, J. D. (1993). Social Stories: Improving responses of students with autism with accurate social information. Focus on Autistic Behavior, 8(1), 1-10.

    Guralnick, M. J., Neville, B., Hammond, M. A., & Connor, R. T. (2007). The friendships of young children with developmental delays: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 64-79.

    Hanson, M. J., & Carta, J. J. (1995). Addressing the Challenges of Families With Multiple Risks. Exceptional Children, 62(3), 201-212.

    Head Start Center for Inclusion. Social Stories. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/hscenter/social_stories

    Hemmeter, M. L, Ostrosky, M. M., & Corso, R. (2012). Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common questions and practical strategies. Young Exceptional Children, 12(2), 31-44. doi: 10.1177/1096250611427350

    Hemmeter, M. L., Ostrosky, M. M., Artman, K., & Kinder, K. (2008). Moving Right Along: Planning transitions to prevent challenging behavior. Young Children, 63(3), 18-22, 24-25.

    Jones, N. P. (2008). Grouping children to promote social and emotional development. Young Children, May 2008, 34-39.

    Luckenbill, J. (2011). Circle Time Puppets: Teaching social skills. Teaching Young Children, 4(4), 9-11.

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2010). 9x: Cooperative games for preschoolers. Teaching Young Children, 4(2), 6-7.

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). All Children Need Friends. Teaching Young Children. 2(3). pp. 28-29.

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. Helping children get to know each other. Teaching Young Children/Preschool

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2014). Principles of Effective Practice: Two Way Communication. Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/principles-effective-family-engagement

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2012). Early Childhood Generalist Standards for Teachers of Ages 3-8 (3rd ed.). Arlington, VA: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

    National Center on Quality Teaching and Learning. Materials for Social Emotional Support: (1) Giving Children Responsibilities, (2) Following Children’s Lead, (3) Fostering Connections, (4) Being Aware of Children’s Needs, (5) Creating a Caring Community. Related content online at https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/school-readiness/effective-practice-guides/social-emotional-development

    O’Neill, B. E. (2013). Improvisational Play Interventions: Fostering social-emotional development in inclusive classrooms. Young Children, July 2013, 62-69.

    Ostrosky, M. M., & Meadan, H. (2010). Helping Children Play and Learn Together. YC: Young Children, 65(1), 104-110.

    Ostrosky, M. M., Mouzourou, C., Dorsey, E.A., Favazza, P.C., & Leboeuf, L.M. (2013). Pick a Book, Any Book: Using children’s books to support positive attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Young Exceptional Children. doi: 10.1177/1096250613512666.

    Ostrosky, M. M., & Sandall, S. R. (Eds.). (2013). Addressing Young Children’s Challenging Behaviors (Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series No. 15). Los Angeles, CA: The Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children.

    Sanchez, D. D., Steece-Doran, D., & Jablon, J. (2011). Planning for Positive Guidance: powerful interactions make a difference. Teaching Young Children, 6(2), 8-10.

    Sandall, S. & Ostrosky, M. M. (Eds.). (1999). Practical ideas for addressing challenging behaviors. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

    Santos, R. M., & Ostrosky, M. M. Understanding the impact of language differences on classroom behavior. CSEFEL What Works Briefs. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481990.pdf

    Stanton-Chapman, T. L., & Hadden, D. S. (2011). Encouraging Peer Interactions in Preschool Classrooms: The role of the teacher. Young Exceptional Children, 14(1), 17-28.

    Strain, P. S., & Odom, S. L. (1986). Peer Social Initiations: An effective intervention for social skill deficits of preschool handicapped children. Exceptional Children, 52, 543-552.

    Taylor, A. S., Peterson, C. A., McMurray-Schwarz, P., & Guillou, T. S. (2002). Social Skills Interventions: Not just for children with special needs. Young Exceptional Children, 5, 19-26.

    Trawick-Smith, J. W. (2014). Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective, (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.