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    Objectives
    • Define child abuse and neglect, including familial and institutional abuse and neglect.
    • Describe your legal and ethical obligation to report abuse and neglect wherever it occurs.
    • Recognize protective factors that prevent child abuse and neglect.
    • Describe training requirements for staff and your responsibility regarding training.

    Learn

    Learn

    Teach

    For most of us, it’s hard to imagine anyone harming a child. As disturbing as it can be, child abuse and neglect is very real. More than 600,000 children per year are victims of abuse or neglect in the United States (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Most of us will never understand why an individual commits abuse or neglect. The purpose of this lesson is to:

    • Help you understand what child abuse and neglect is
    • Help you understand your responsibilities in reporting and preventing abuse and neglect
    • Help you understand your training and professional development responsibilities for staff members who work with children ages birth to 12 years

    As a Training and Curriculum Specialist, you will have the role of teaching staff members how to identify, report, and respond to suspicions of child abuse and neglect. To do your job effectively, you must be knowledgeable about child abuse and neglect. It is also important to remember that you are a mandated reporter. This means you are legally required to report suspicions of abuse or neglect to appropriate authorities (e.g., Child Protective ServicesMIL, Military Family Advocacy programs, or your Reporting Point of Contact in Army programs). If you are unsure whether something is abuse or neglect, or rather an infraction of a policy, you may want to discuss this with your supervisor. You never have to seek permission to report. If YOU think a case of abuse or neglect has occurred, you are required to report it properly.

    The following sections define child abuse and neglect. All direct care staff members have read identical definitions, so you can communicate a consistent message with this content.

    What is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    The U.S. Federal government defines child abuse and neglect as:

    Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.

    Source: Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) Reauthorization Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-320), § 3.

    Take a minute to reflect on that definition. What are your impressions of the federal definition? What does it mean? Let’s explore each part in more detail:

    • Any recent act or failure to act: This reminds us that abuse and neglect are two distinct concepts. A child can be harmed by overt actions like hitting or kicking, but a child can also be harmed when an adult fails to provide for the child’s well-being.
    • on the part of a parent or caretaker: Remember abuse and neglect can happen anywhere and by anyone. Abuse does not just happen at the hands of a parent or family member. Abuse and neglect can be committed by anyone who is responsible for the care of a child. This might be a teacher, coach, faith leader, or any other individual in a caregiving or supervisory role.
    • which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation
    • or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm: We don’t have to wait for tragedies to strike. If a child is in serious risk of harm, it can be considered abuse or neglect.

    This definition is the minimum federal standard. States and government departments can develop their own more specific definitions of child abuse and neglect.MIL In your workplace, you will observe and follow the Department of Defense definitions of child abuse and neglect.

    The Department of Defense (DoDD 6400.1, 2004) defines child abuse and neglect as follows:

    Child abuse and neglect includes physical injury, sexual maltreatment, emotional maltreatment, deprivation of necessities or combinations for a child by an individual responsible for the child's welfare under circumstances indicating that the child's welfare is harmed or threatened. The term encompasses both acts and omissions on the part of a responsible person. A child is a person under 18 years of age for whom a parent, guardian, foster parent, caretaker, employee of a residential facility or any staff person providing out-of-home care is legally responsible. The term child means a natural child, adopted child, stepchild, foster child or ward. The term also includes an individual of any age who is incapable for self-support because of a mental or physical incapacity and for whom treatment in a medical treatment facility is authorized.

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesMIL and the military Family Advocacy Program, child abuse and neglect generally falls into one of these four categories:

    Neglect

    Neglect includes the failure to provide for a child's basic needs despite being financially able to do so. Neglect may be:

    • Physical, when an adult fails to provide necessary food, shelter, or appropriate supervision
    • Medical, when an adult fails to provide necessary medical or mental-health treatment
    • Educational, when an adult fails to educate a child or attend to special education needs
    • Emotional, when an adult fails to provide attention to a child's emotional needs, fails to provide psychological care, or permits the child to use alcohol or drugs

    Physical Abuse

    Physical abuse  is defined as non-accidental physical harm to a child by actions such as:

    • punching
    • beating
    • kicking
    • biting
    • shaking
    • throwing
    • stabbing
    • choking
    • hitting
    • burning

    Emotional Abuse

    Emotional abuse includes a pattern of behaviors that have a negative effect on the child's psychological well-being, including constant criticism, threats, and rejection. Emotional abuse may occur when a child is:

    • Ignored: An adult may not look at or respond to a child.
    • Rejected: An adult actively refuses a child by denying their needs or ridiculing them.
    • Isolated: A child is prevented from having interactions with peers, family members, or other adults.
    • Exploited or corrupted: A child is taught or encouraged to engage in illegal or inappropriate behaviors like stealing.
    • Verbally assaulted: An adult constantly belittles, shames, ridicules, or threatens a child.
    • Terrorized: An adult threatens or bullies the child and creates a climate of fear; the child or a loved one may be placed in a dangerous situation or threatened with harm.

    Sexual Abuse

    Sexual abuse includes sexual activity toward or involving a child, and may include:

    • Fondling or groping a child's genitals
    • Making a child touch an adult's sexual organs
    • Penetration of any kind that does not have a valid medical purpose
    • Incest, rape, and sodomy
    • Exposing one's self to a child
    • Exposing children to pornographic material
    • Deliberately exposing a child to the act of sexual intercourse
    • Masturbating in front of a child
    • Involving a child in prostitution
    • Involving a child in the production of any sexually explicit images

    Where Does Child Abuse and Neglect Occur?

    Child abuse and neglect can happen anywhere. You should be familiar with two distinct types of abuse and neglect: Familial and institutional. The two are distinguished by who is suspected of committing the act and where the suspected act occurred.

    Familial abuse or neglect occurs in a child’s home. The act of abuse or neglect is committed by a parent, guardian, or family member.

    Institutional abuse or neglect occurs outside the home in community or private settings. This type of abuse or neglect is also known as “out-of-home” or “extra-familial” abuse or neglect.MIL Throughout the rest of this course, institutional abuse will refer to abuse or neglect which may occur in Department of Defense-sponsored facilities, programs, or activities. This course will focus on abuse or neglect which may occur occur in child development centers, family child care homes, sponsored field trips, and school-age care programs. Remember, though, that institutional abuse can also occur in installation homework or computer centers, mentoring or tutoring programs, sports programs, chapel programs, scouts, Morale Welfare and Recreation programs, teen centers and youth programs. This type of abuse typically involves a child and an adult in a supervisory role, like a teacher, caregiver, or volunteer.

    You will learn more about institutional abuse in the last lesson of this course and in the Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Course. However, there are a few things you should know as you begin this course. There are certain types of guidance and discipline that have the potential to inflict harm and model aggression. When staff members use aggressive techniques with children, they and their families learn that aggressive responses to behavior are OK. That is not the message we want to send children and families. The following practices have no place in programs and may be considered child abuse or neglect:

    • Corporal punishment: Staff may not, under any circumstances, strike, hit, whip, spank, or use any other form of physical punishment on a child of any age.
    • Withholding physical needs: Staff may not, under any circumstances, withhold food, sleep, physical activity or other needs like toileting from a child as punishment.
    • Yelling, shaming, belittling, or threatening a child: Staff may not, under any circumstances, intentionally make a child fear for his or her physical or psychological safety. Staff may not call children hurtful names, threaten children, or make children feel shame.
    • Isolating a child: Staff may not punish a child by leaving him or her alone (i.e., leaving a child on the playground alone because he did not line up with the group) or by putting the child in “time out” in an enclosed space like a closet, restroom, or cardboard box.
    • Binding or restricting a child’s movements: Staff may not punish a child by preventing him or her from being able to move or speak (i.e., covering a child’s mouth or hands with tape).

    If a staff member is accused of child abuse or neglect, they can expect to be removed from direct contact with children while an investigation is underway.

    Who is At-Risk?

    Child abuse and neglect can happen to anyone. There is no “typical” abuser or victim. There are some situations that are associated with higher levels of risk for abuse or neglect, though. Understanding who is more at-risk for abuse and neglect can help us provide extra support to children and families who are experiencing stress. We can think of risk occurring at several levels: individual, family, and community.

    Individual: Three categories of children are more at-risk for experiencing child abuse and neglect: young children, children with disabilities, and children with challenging behavior. This means children who have a difficult time communicating, controlling their emotions, following directions, or getting along with others might be at-risk. The adults around them might get frustrated easily or not know how to help the child. We must be careful to remember this does not mean that the child causes the abuse and neglect. The child is never to blame. It also does not mean that only children in these categories are abused or neglected. Rather, we must remember to provide extra support to families whose children meet these characteristics.

    Family: There are also some characteristics of adults who are more at-risk for committing abuse or neglect. Adults with little knowledge of child development or a history of maltreatment as a child are at increased risk for committing child abuse or neglect. It is important to remember, though, that not all adults who were abused as children go on to abuse their own children. Adults with substance abuse, mental health issues, or a harsh approach to discipline may also be at risk.

    Abuse is more likely to occur in families that are socially isolated. A family might be socially isolated for many reasons: a recent move or deployment might separate them from extended family and friends, long or unpredictable work schedules might prevent them from having social opportunities, or they might not know how to reach out to others. Child abuse and neglect is also more likely to occur in families that have experienced other forms of domestic violence, like violence against a spouse or partner. Families experiencing stress (like unemployment, birth of a new child, marital conflict, or deployment), poor parent-child relationships, and negative interactions also are more at-risk for abuse or neglect to occur.

    Community: Community risk factors include community violence, high levels of poverty, high levels of mobility and housing instability, high unemployment rates, and poor social connections. Community risk factors can add increased stress on families. Abuse and neglect is more likely to occur when stress is high or access to necessary resources is low.

    What are Protective Factors?

    Take a moment to reflect on the risk factors you just read about. If you could think of ways to counteract or cancel out those risk factors, what would they be? What types of characteristics minimize the risk for child abuse and neglect? Researchers and policymakers have spent a lot of time thinking about these questions. As a result, the Center for the Study of Social Policy has developed the Strengthening Families Protective Factors Framework to prevent child abuse and neglect. It is important to understand this framework because it can help you see that the high-quality, family-centered work that you do every day in your program makes a difference in the lives of children and families. Our job is not only to care for each child but also to provide care and support for the whole family. The Strengthening Families Protective Factors framework gives us tools and ideas to support families.

    There is a resource in the Apply section for you to download and read to learn more about the Protective Factors Framework. Here is a brief overview of the five protective factors that help prevent child abuse and neglect in families. When these five factors are strong, families are better equipped with the skills and supports they need to protect their child from abuse and neglect.

    Strengthening Families Protective Factors (Figure 1)

    1. Parental Resilience

      Families are able to manage stress and bounce back from challenges.

    2. Knowledge of Child Development and Parenting

      Adults know what to expect as children grow and are able to meet their child's needs at each stage of development.

    3. Social Connections

      Families know there are people who care about them and who they can call on for help.

    4. Concrete Supports in Times of Need

      Families can get the help they need when crises strike: food and shelter, medical and mental health services, social, legal, and educational resources.

    5. Social and Emotional Competence of Children

      Social and emotional development promotes healthy relationships with others. Children with strong relationships, who can regulate their own behavior, express their emotions, and relate to others are at lower risk of maltreatment.

    What is My Role in Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect?

    As a Training and Curriculum Specialist, you have a legal and ethical professional obligation to protect children from harm. You and all the staff in your building are mandated reporters for suspicions of child abuse and neglect. This means you are legally required to report suspicions of child abuse and neglect. To help staff understand the legal ramifications of reporting or failing to report, you can visit the Child Information Gateway’s resources about state statutes and penalties (https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/systemwide/laws-policies/state/).

    You will learn about reporting procedures in subsequent lessons. For now, it is important to recognize that you have an obligation to report your suspicions of child abuse and neglect.

    On military installations, you may also work closely with staff of your installation’s Family Advocacy Program (FAP) to create a climate that promotes reporting. Watch this video to learn more about FAP’s scope and mission.

    Scope and Mission of Family Advocacy Programs

    Learn about the scope and mission of FAP

    A major part of your role is training, supporting, and strengthening staff. You will ensure staff members participate in annual child abuse and neglect trainings. It is also likely that your will be the first person staff members come to when they are concerned about a child or family. You have an important role to listen actively, take concerns seriously, and provide staff with the professional and emotional support they need during stressful times. You will learn more in Lesson 4 about the signs of stress and how you can help staff members build resilience.

    Model

    Model a Commitment to Keeping Children Safe

    You are a mandated reporter and a role model for staff members. If you suspect child abuse or neglect, you must make a report. You must also provide staff members with the information and support they need to make a report if they suspect child abuse or neglect. You will learn more about reporting in subsequent lessons, but for now understand that you play a critical role in building a program culture that prioritizes each child’s safety.

    Model Collaboration with CommunityMIL or Installation Organizations

    You are a mandated reporter, and so are all installation law enforcement personnel, physicians, nurses, social workers, school personnel, Family Advocacy Program and Children, Youth and School personnel, psychologists, and other medical personnel. In some services and on some installations, all service members are mandated reporters.

    Clearly, there are many other professionals who share your mission to protect children from harm. You can build relationships with these other professionals and share resources. Reach out to your local FAP office. Learn about how they can support your work with children and families.

    Training and Curriculum Specialists also have an important opportunity to partner with Prevention Education trainers and FAP clinicians. Some program staff members may view FAP as dealing only with families in the aftermath of violence, but, in reality, FAP has just as much focus on prevention and supporting healthy familial interactions. FAP has general counseling for individuals, couples and families dealing with life transitions or long-term mental health issues. FAP is designed to provide educational, group, or counseling services before an incident of abuse or neglect occurs. You can refer families to FAP even if no abuse or neglect is occurring. You can also refer families of infants and toddlers to the New Parent Support Program on many installations. The offer many support groups and trainings, and they can partner with you to provide staff trainings.

    Clearly, there are many other professionals who share your mission to protect children from harm. In your community, law enforcement personnel, physicians, nurses, social workers, school personnel, and medical personnel are usually mandated reporters. You can build relationships with these other professionals and share resources. Learn about how they can support your work with children and families.

    Model a Protective Factors Approach

    What do programs that promote the Protective Factors Approach look like? Watch this video to find out.

    Learning Together about the Protective Factors

    Learn about how you can learn with FAP on your installation

    Observe

    Make sure staff members fulfill their annual training requirements for child abuse and neglect identification and reporting. This is more than just offering training and making sure basic requirements are met. Make sure staff members really understand what they are looking for and how to respond if they have a suspicion of abuse or neglect.

    Also be sure to observe staff members for signs of stress and provide them with the professional and emotional support they need. You will learn more about this in Lesson 4.

    Continue working through this course and the Child Abuse Prevention course to learn more about how to observe and support staff members.

    Completing this Course

    For more information on what to expect in this course and a list of the accompanying Learn, Explore and Apply resources and activities offered throughout the lessons, visit the Training & Curriculum Specialist Child Abuse: Identification & Reporting Course Guide.

    To support the professional development of the direct care staff members or family child care providers you oversee, you can access their corresponding Course Guides:

    • Infant & Toddler Child Abuse: Identification & Reporting Course Guide
    • Preschool Child Abuse: Identification & Reporting Course Guide
    • School-Age Child Abuse: Identification & Reporting Course Guide
    • Family Child Care Child Abuse: Identification & Reporting Course Guide

    Explore

    Explore

    Throughout the next five lessons, you will learn about “Braden and Bethany’s Story.”

    This is a fictionalized account of actual events that occurred on a U.S. military installation. The names, exact dates, locations, and service-specific terminology have been changed or neutralized. To create the activities in this and subsequent lessons, we started with the facts of a real criminal investigation and lawsuit. What you will read here goes beyond the facts recorded in the criminal case by imagining details of individual’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. Although much of what you will read here is fiction, the sequence of events is very real.

    This activity introduces you to Braden and Bethany’s story. Some direct care staff members have read the same scenario in their lessons, but they will answer different reflection questions. This story has been specifically chosen to highlight in the T&Cs track because this family’s experiences might be applicable across your work with different age groups. The family had children of different ages in a variety of child and youth programs. The purpose of this activity is for everyone to be familiar with the facts of a real case and to reflect on issues that are relevant to their roles.

    Download and print the Case Study Reflection activity. Read Braden and Bethany’s Story. Then answer the reflection questions. We also encourage you to read the suggested responses from experts. These will provide additional information and extend your learning. 

    Apply

    Apply

    Before identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect, you must have a basic understanding of the terms. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has created a fact sheet with a definition and types of child abuse and neglect. Download and print the Abuse Fact Sheet as a resource for your professional library.

    You can also download and print a two-page description of the Protective Factors Framework approach to learn more about that important model for your work.

    Glossary

    TermDescription
    Child AbuseAny recent act or failure to act that results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm
    Emotional AbuseA pattern of behavior by adults that seriously interferes with a child’s cognitive, emotional, psychological or social development
    Familial AbuseAbuse or neglect that is perpetrated by the child’s parent, guardian, or family member
    Imminent riskThere is substantial evidence that a child is in immediate danger
    Institutional AbuseAbuse or neglect that occurs by someone outside the home who is responsible for the care or supervision of the child (a teacher, caregiver, coach, priest, etc.)
    NeglectFailure by a caregiver to provide needed age-appropriate care despite being financially able to do so or offered financial or other means to do so (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007)
    Physical AbuseNon-accidental trauma or injury
    Protective FactorsConditions or attributes of individuals, families, communities, or society that mitigate or eliminate risk and increase the health and well-being of children and families
    Risk FactorsConditions or attributes of individuals, families, communities, or society that are associated with increased risk of abuse or neglect
    Sexual AbuseThe involvement of a child in any sexual touching, depiction, or activity

    Demonstrate

    Demonstrate
    Assessment

    Q1

    Read the following statements from staff members. Which of the following do you think could be examples of child abuse or neglect? Choose the best answer.

    Q2

    Which of the following is not an example of child sexual abuse?

    Q3

    After your annual child abuse training, Gabby comes to you visibly upset. She confides in you that the training was very emotional because she was abused as a child. True or false: You should move Gabby to a job without contact with children because she is very likely to commit abuse.

    Q4

    Which of the following is an example of institutional abuse? Choose the best answer.

    Q5

    You overhear the following comments from staff. Which one could be example of child neglect?

    References & Resources

    Center for the Study of Social Policy (n.d.). Strengthening Families: A Protective Factors Framework. 

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Violence Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/

    Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect Factsheet. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubpdfs/preventingcan.pdf

    Harper Browne, C. (2014). The Strengthening Families Approach and Protective Factors Framework: Branching out and reaching deeper. Washington, D.C.: Center for the Study of Social Policy. Retrieved from https://cssp.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Branching-Out-and-Reaching-Deeper.pdf

    Military Family Advocacy Programs. Retrieved from: http://www.militaryonesource.mil/phases-military-leadership?content_id=266712

    Seibel, N. L., Britt, D., Gillespie, L. G., & Parlakian, R. (2006). Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: Zero to Three: Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012). Child Maltreatment 2011.

    Zero to Three: Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families. (2006). The Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved from https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/91-the-prevalence-of-child-abuse-and-neglect