- Teach staff to explore their own assumptions about working with families of children with special needs.
- Observe and provide feedback on variables that support family-centered practices.
- Model effective ways to support families of children with special needs.
Families of Children with Special Needs
Children with special needs are members of our communities, programs, and families, and it is our responsibility and commitment to provide high-quality, inclusive services. While these families often experience additional situations and stressors, they have hopes, dreams, and concerns for their children just like other families. You can positively impact families of children with special needs by empowering them with knowledge, empathizing with their feelings, and collaborating with other support professionals in their lives.
Working with Families of Children with Special Needs
Establishing meaningful relationships with families is a critical part of your work, and your communication is especially important when working with families of children with special needs. Some children will enter your program with known special needs, and other families will learn that their child has a disability while enrolled in your program. Families with eligible children ages birth to three may receive early intervention (IDEA Part C) services and have an individualized family service plan (IFSP); while, eligible children ages three and older who receive special education services (IDEA Part B) will have an individualized education program (IEP). Others may only receive support from a medical center, and some families will be involved with multiple systems of support. Regardless, families can be overwhelmed by what feels like a constant flow of suggestions and appointments to help their children learn and develop. These families often need more help supporting their children’s development and may turn to you, or others in your program, for assistance connecting to services or agencies outside your program. It may be helpful for you or an administrator to form relationships with community agencies, so you have up-to-date information on how to make referrals and the types of services offered. Positive interactions with families and other supportive individuals in their lives can improve families’ well-being and minimize stress
Families going through evaluation processes may ask a program staff member to complete questionnaires or provide input at the request of a doctor, specialist, or teacher. Other professionals rely on this input, especially when they have a limited amount of time with children compared to program staff who often spend many hours each week caring for, educating, and observing children. This information can be used to help determine if a child has a specific condition, support the child outcomes summary (COS) process, determine eligibility for specific services, and develop outcomes for an IFSP or IEP. It’s important that the staff member asked to do this have time to complete this request. Parents or a Local Education Agency (LEA) may request that you or someone from your program attend eligibility meetings or reviews for IFSPs and IEPs. During these reviews, the team of professionals come together with families to assess progress, develop new outcomes, and determine needed services and accommodations. Working with professionals from outside agencies helps things run smoothly for families and ensures that all of the professionals and caregivers in a child’s life are communicating. This lessens family stress by reducing the need for primary caregivers to act as the in-between messenger of important information.
The first step to establish strong relationships with families of children with special needs is to discover their wishes and concerns for their children and to learn about the meaningful activities they participate in at home. Maintaining this communication throughout a child’s time in your program is essential. Ask questions and find out about strategies that work at home and consider using those in the program. At the same time, help staff members share their own thoughts about children’s strengths and their concerns about children’s development (Sandall, Hemmeter, Smith, & McLean, 2005). Staff members may need your support before sharing concerns with families to ensure they are using family-centered practice and are prepared to support families if they choose to take steps or reach out to outside agencies and programs. For families already receiving support from other professionals, ongoing communication with both families and professionals is critical to maintain consistency between program and home environments. When all the caregivers in a child’s life are consistently using effective strategies to promote development and outcomes, children are more likely to benefit and learn new skills.
In your collaboration with families, acknowledge and respect their strengths and unique backgrounds, as well as their ability to make decisions that are right for them (Hanson & Lynch, 2004). This means that although family wishes and decisions may be different from what you would prefer, these have to be respected.
Take a look at the following guidelines that reflect family-centered practice. Then, think about which of these you can use in your work with families of children with special needs in your program (Turnbull, Turbiville, & Turnbull, 2000).
- Recognize the family as a constant in the child’s life; caregivers and service systems may come and go
- Facilitate collaboration between families and professionals
- Honor and respect family diversity in all dimensions (cultural, racial, ethnic, linguistic, spiritual, and socio-economic)
- Recognize family strengths and the different approaches that families may use in coping
- Share unbiased and honest information with family members on an ongoing basis
- Encourage family-to-family support and networking
- Acknowledge and incorporate the developmental needs of the child and other family members into your practice
- Design and implement services that are accessible, culturally and linguistically respectful and responsive, flexible, and based on family-identified needs
There are many ways staff members in your programs can demonstrate respect and consideration for families of children with special needs. Look for ways staff members do the following:
- Acknowledge that families know their child best and ask them questions about services or resources that may be helpful.
- Establish ongoing communication between home and school. Communication journals are a great way of doing that. These are usually sent home with the child and returned the next day. Staff members can share noteworthy observations or events, and families can respond to those or share their own news or reflections. While communication journals can be used with families of all children, when it comes to children with special learning needs they can be a valuable tool in establishing consistency between home and school environments.
- Incorporate children’s books that reflect consideration of multiple abilities and differences in the curriculum.
- Invite families to talk about their children with special needs. For example, a family member may come in your program and talk about their child’s use of adaptive equipment (e.g., braces, wheelchair, or a communication device). The family member may explain the use of equipment and this can help children and other families understand aspects of their life. This also promotes acceptance of differences.
- Be a team player! Work collaboratively with families and other professionals who may be involved in the delivery of services to children with special learning needs.
If disagreements or miscommunications arise, consider the following:
- Remind yourself that your role is to support families’ hopes and dreams for their child.
- Be patient. Dealing with a child with special needs may be challenging at times, and family members need time to navigate this experience at their own pace.
- Avoid making judgments on families and their children.
- Consider difficult times as opportunities to build trust between yourself and families.
- Question your assumptions about working with families of children with special needs and urge other professionals you know to do the same. To learn more about what to observe in staff members, watch this video from Kids Included Together (KiT; www.kitonline.org).
PUBLICRemember that you play a critical role in supporting the inclusion of children with special needs. If there is a specific plan such as an IFSP, IEP, or behavior intervention plan, you may participate in those teams and decision-making. Familiarize yourself with these processes, and learn about individual plans for each child in your program. Provide support to staff if they need help implementing recommendations, communicate with families about their observations of their children at home, and work with outside professionals as needed.
Complete the Reflecting on Families of Children with Special Needs activity and choose at least one of the Using Family-Specific Language case scenarios. Reflect on your responses and discuss any questions you may have with a colleague.
Use the Useful Resources for Families and Professionals resource in this section to learn more about supporting families of children with special needs in your care. You may also want to share some of these resources with families.
Think about how the information in The Emotional Experience of Families of Children with Disabilities will impact how your view families and respond to their decisions and behavior.
|CHILD OUTCOMES SUMMARY (COS) PROCESS||Team process required by the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs for all state early intervention and preschool special education agencies to report data summarizing a child’s functioning in three outcome areas: (1) positive social-emotional skills, (2) acquisition and use of knowledge and skills, and (3) use of appropriate behaviors to meet needs|
|EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION / IDEA PART B||Federal program implemented by local education agencies to provide services and accommodations to eligible students with educational disabilities ages three and older|
|EARLY INTERVENTION / IDEA PART C||Federal program implemented by states to provide services to families with eligible children ages with developmental delays and disabilities ages birth to three|
|empathize||To try to feel what another person is feeling; to “put yourself in another’s shoes”|
|INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM (IEP)||Written education program for special education (IDEA Part B) that lists educational goals, services, and accommodations for eligible children ages three and older|
|INDIVIDUALIZED FAMILY SERVICE PLAN (IFSP)||Written plan for providing early intervention services (IDEA Part C) for eligible families with children ages birth to three|
|LOCAL EDUCATION AGENCY (LEA)||Publicly-funded school districts|
|RELATED SERVICES||Including but not limited to the following services: speech-language therapy, audiology, interpreting, psychological, physical therapy, occupational therapy, recreation, counseling, orientation and mobility, medical services, nursing, social work, parent counseling and training|
Barrera, I., & Corso, R. M. (2003). Skilled Dialogue: Strategies for responding to cultural diversity in early childhood. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
Center for Parent Information & Resources. (n.d). Supporting the Parent Centers Who Serve Families of Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from https://parentcenterhub.org/
Hanson, M. J., & Lynch, E.W. (2004). Understanding Families: Approaches to diversity, disability, and risk. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Harry, B., Kalyanpur, M., & Day, M. (1999). Building Cultural Reciprocity with Families: Case studies in special education. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
Harry, N., Rueda, R., & Kalyanpur, M. (1999). Cultural Reciprocity in Sociocultural Perspective: Adapting the normalization principle for family collaboration. Exceptional Children 66(1): 123-136.
Howard, V.F., Williams, B.F., Port, P.D., & Lepper, C. (1997). Very Young Children with Special Needs: A formative approach for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Kalyanpur, M., & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in Special Education: Building reciprocal family-professional relationships. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
Kids Included Together: http://www.kitonline.org/index.html
Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (2004). Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A guide for working with young children and their families (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2011). Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment. Retrieved from at http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements/ethical_conduct
NAEYC Guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice: Establishing reciprocal relationships with families.
Poston, D., Turnbull, A., Park, J., Mannan, H., Marquis, J., & Wang, M. (2003). Family Quality of Life: A qualitative inquiry. Mental Retardation 41(5): 313-328.
Salend, S. J., & Garrick-Duhaney, L. M. (2002). What Do Families Have to Say About Inclusion? How to pay attention and get results. Teaching Exceptional Children 35(1): 62-66.
Sandall, S., Hemmeter, M. L., Smith, B. J., & McLean, M. E. (2005). DEC Recommended Practices: A comprehensive guide for practical application (pp. 107-126). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
Peck, A., & Scarpati, S. (2002) Special Education Around the World. Teaching Exceptional Children 34(5): 4.
Turnbull, A. P., Turbiville, V.,& Turnbull, H. R. (2000). Evolution of Family-Professional Partnerships: Collective empowerment as the model for the early twenty-first century. In Shonkoff, J. P. & Meisels, S. J. (Eds.). Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention (pp. 630-650). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., Erwin, E. J., & Soodak, L. C. (2006). Families, Professionals, and Exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.