- Identify typical physical developmental milestones in preschool children.
- Discuss what to do if you are concerned about a child’s development.
- Discuss factors that influence physical growth and development.
The preschool years are a time of what seems like constant motion. Preschoolers are busy moving in their environments, both indoors and outside. They spend large amounts of time running, climbing, jumping, and chasing each other; they scribble, paint, build, pour, cut with scissors, put puzzles together, and string beads. Their motor skills are significantly refined from the time they were toddlers, and they are much more coordinated and purposeful in their actions. They also demonstrate improved speed and strength, and become increasingly more independent.
Physical Growth and Appearance
A steady increase in children’s height, weight, and muscle tone occurs during the preschool years. (Trawick-Smith, 2014). Compared with toddlers, preschoolers are taller and leaner. Their legs and trunks continue to grow, and their heads are not as large in proportion to their bodies. As preschoolers’ bodies develop over time, the areas in their brains that control movement continue to mature, enabling them to master gross and fine-motor skills.
Let’s take a look at preschoolers’ physical development. Read the chart below for a closer look at what preschoolers can do with their bodies. Keep in mind that each child is unique and that individual differences exist in regard to the precise age at which children meet these milestones. Milestones should not be seen as rigid checklists to evaluate children’s development. Rather, as highlighted in the Cognitive Development course, milestones provide a guide for when to expect certain skills or behaviors to emerge in young children which are based on their cognitive development, gross-motor development, fine-motor development, hearing, speech, vision, social-emotional development, and other factors. Think of milestones as guidelines to help you understand and identify typical patterns of development in children and to help you know when and what to look for as children mature. Like a family’s pediatrician, preschool teachers must be knowledgeable about children’s developmental milestones. You can use your knowledge of these milestones to meet children’s needs in your classroom. Even though the skills highlighted in the chart develop in a predictable sequence over the preschool years, each child is unique. Your goal is to help all children grow and learn to reach their maximum potential.
Chart: Movement and Physical Developmental Milestones in Preschool
- Climbs well
- Runs easily
- Pedals a tricycle
- Walks up and down stairs, one foot on each step
- Washes and dries hands
- Kicks and throws a small ball
- Draw a circle with a crayon, pencil, or marker
- Uses a fork
- Dresses self in loose clothing
- Hops and stands on one foot up to 2 seconds
- Pours, cuts with supervision, and mashes own food
- Catches a bounced ball most of the time
- Draws a person with two to four body parts
- Uses scissors
- Jump over objects and climb playground ladders
- Starts to copy some capital letters
- Get dressed with minimal help (zippers, snaps, and buttons may still be a little hard)
- Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer
- Hops, and may be able to skip
- Can do a somersault
- Uses a fork and spoon and sometimes a table knife
- Swings and climbs
- Can use toilet on own
- Can print some letters or numbers
- Copies a triangle and other geometric shapes
Influences on Physical Growth
Physical growth and development entails more than just becoming taller, stronger or larger. It involves a series of changes in body size, composition, and proportion. Biological and environmental factors also affect physical growth and development (Berk, 2013). In this section we will examine factors that affect physical growth in young children.
During the preschool years, you will see significant developments in children’s motor skills. Watch this video to learn about milestones in physical growth during the preschool years.
Understanding developmental milestones is an important part of working with young children. Learning about and understanding how preschoolers use their bodies will help you know how to support them in developing motor skills and what kinds of learning experiences to plan in your classroom and program. Keep in mind that each child is different and that you may have to adapt goals or activities to meet children’s unique needs. Consider the following:
- Plan meaningfully: In your daily interactions with children in your care, purposefully plan activities that let you discover information about the children, such as how they are developing and refining their motor skills. For example, observe how children move around different stations in your room during free play, how they follow directions as you lead them through activities such as circle time, or how they manipulate objects in their hands as you facilitate child-initiated play. Use this valuable observational information to plan activities that promote children’s further development or to adapt goals and activities to meet the particular learning needs of any individual child.
- Be sensitive to individual children’s needs: As you engage in these observations, remember that each child is different and that sometimes children may not reach milestones as expected. If you are concerned about a child’s development, talk with the child’s family. This may be difficult, but important, as it can make the difference in meeting a child’s needs. Share information with families about typical child development and let them know you are available to talk. If your program provides developmental screening tools, these screenings can help you start a conversation about your concerns. Always feel welcome to talk to a trainer, coach, or administrator in your program about ways to help a child progress in your classroom.
- Be responsive to families’ needs and preferences: If a family approaches you and shares concerns about their child’s development, encourage them to talk to their child’s pediatrician. A pediatrician can perform developmental screenings and possibly refer the child to a specialist. Families of children over age 3 should also contact their local school district. The school district can arrange a free evaluation of the child’s development to assess for developmental delays and arrange services and supports.
Consider all the different ways your preschoolers can use their bodies and what they learn about themselves, their peers, and the world as they master newly-learned skills and develop new ones. The activity below will help you think about the significance of physical development and movement in preschool.
For the Thinking about Physical Development resource, take a few minutes to describe the movements children in your classroom make. Next, think about what children are learning while engaging in these movements. Then, share and discuss your responses with a trainer, coach, or administrator.
Use the Milestone Moments document to monitor the physical development of the children in your in your classroom. These milestone guides from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are great resources that you can share with families.
Parents may be interested also in the Milestone Tracker Mobile App from the CDC, which they can access here: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones-app.html.
Berk, L. E. (2013). Child Development (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). The Association Between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/health_and_academics/pdf/pa-pe_paper.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (20132021). Developmental Milestones. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/pdf/FULL-LIST-CDC_LTSAE-Checklists2021_Eng_FNL2_508.pdf
National Center on the Sexual Behavior of Youth (2013). CHILDHOOD SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT. Retrieved from http://www.ncsby.org/content/childhood-sexual-development
Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc. (2002). Ages and stages questionnaire (ASQ). https://agesandstages.com/
Schickeadanz, J. A., Hansen, K., & Forsyth, P. D. (2000). Understanding Children. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Trawick-Smith, J. W. (2014). Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective, (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.