- Reflect on what it means to be an ethical staff member.
- Identify ethical practices when it comes to interacting with children and families.
- Identify examples of what it means to act responsibly and ethically as a staff member.
"Your beliefs become your thoughts. Your thoughts become your words. Your words become your actions. Your actions become your habits. Your habits become your values. Your values become your destiny." - Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948), Indian political and spiritual leader
As a staff member working in an after-school care setting you may be faced with challenging ethical situations. You can prepare yourself for these difficult situations by familiarizing yourself with ethical conduct through professional organizations such as The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and The National After School Association (NAA), as well as your program’s policies and standards.
Let’s look at what we mean by ethics and codes of professional conduct. Stephanie Feeney, one of the authors of the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct, describes the terms that are often used in discussions of personal and professional ethics.
Ethics is the study of right and wrong, duties, and obligations. It involves critical reflection on morality, and the ability to make choices between values and to examine the moral dimensions of relationships.
Professional Ethics involves reflection on professional responsibility that is carried out collectively and systematically by the membership of a profession. They are a guide to what we ought to do and not do as professionals.
Code of Ethics is a document that maps the profession's responsibility to society. It conveys a sense of the mission of a field and acknowledges the obligations its members share in meeting their responsibilities... It supports practitioners in their work, so they base their decisions not on their individual values and morality but rather on the core values of the profession.
Ethical Responsibilities are behaviors that one must or must not engage in. Ethical responsibilities are clearly defined and spelled out in the Code of Ethical Conduct.
A professional code of ethics can be used for assistance when making professional decisions. It provides those who work with vulnerable populations (including children, youth, and individuals with disabilities) a framework for addressing problems that may arise in daily interactions.
Your program should have written procedures for addressing complex situations, as ethical dilemmas can occur in your classroom, on the playground, and out in the community. If you have not been introduced to your program's policies and standards during the onboarding process to your program, make sure to request a copy from your Program Manager.
The Importance of Being an Ethical Staff Member
Responsible and Ethical Practices
As staff members, participating in professional development opportunities helps ensure that you are aware of responsible and ethical practices in your work with children and families. Staff meetings can include opportunities to review case studies or role-play situations that address ethical dilemmas. You should always feel comfortable speaking to your trainer or coach about any situations in which you are unsure about how to proceed. Seeking this guidance will help foster an atmosphere in the program that builds trust and communication. Other staff members can also learn from your example about what to do in difficult situations.
Being part of a program that fosters these types of exchanges and communication between direct care staff, trainers, and administrators provides a supportive environment as you become familiar with ethical decision-making. If the program leaders build relationships and maintain a positive, nurturing environment, then when difficult situations arise, you will ask yourself, “What is the most positive way I can address this situation and maintain relationships with all who are involved?”
In your work with families, you will encounter different parenting practices and cultural beliefs. Situations may arise where you will need the guidance of your trainer or coach to learn how to better work in collaboration with families who may have different beliefs and child-rearing practices from your own.
Professional Ethics Lived Day by Day
Professional ethics are not something to review and then place in a drawer; they are lived every day in discussions with children, in supporting families from diverse cultures, in collaborating with fellow staff members, and in participating in community partnerships. As a direct care staff member, adhering to high-quality professional standards is critical for children, youth, and families in your care. You have an obligation to act responsibly and ethically at all times. You are accountable for your actions and maintaining high professional standards should be always your priority. You should look to your PUBLICprogram’s code of conduct to guide you in decision-making and remember that you should always refer to your Training & Curriculum Specialist (T&CS) for guidance on difficult decisions or when you are unsure about something. The following two examples of codes of ethical conduct can be valuable resources for you. The first is the NAEYC Professional Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment (https://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/Supplement%20PS2011.pdf), and the second is the National After School Association Code of Ethics (https://naaweb.org/resources/code-of-ethics). Your core values and philosophy will guide professional behavior.
As a direct care staff member, it is important to get to know the standards that apply to your program. You should take the time to find out about competencies, standards, or position statements that serve as guides for expectations when working with children, youth, and their families. Knowing this information should be of particular importance to you and your work. Your program may already be in the process of accreditation or re-accreditation through a professional organization, and you can learn a lot by being involved in this process.
Maintaining Confidentiality: Children and Families
Lani, a caregiver in the toddler room, is curious about the way Nia, a teacher in the after-school program, is coping with 6-year-old Millie's challenging behaviors. During lunch in the staff lounge Lani asks Nia what is going on with little Millie that is causing her to "act up", and what is Nia doing about it? Lani is a friend of Millie's aunt, and she wants to reassure her that Millie's challenging behavior is being addressed by Nia.
Nia responds to Lani, "We are working with Millie to address her behavior." Nia is very careful not to discuss confidential information about any individual child or family with Lani or any program staff who are not directly interacting with that child. Nia is surprised at Lani's question and writes a note to herself to ask her T&CS or Program Manager about the importance of maintaining confidentiality at the next staff meeting. Reviewing principles of the code of professional conduct needs to occur on a regular basis during staff meetings.
Maintaining confidentiality is a crucial part of professionalism. State and federal laws (e.g., the Privacy Act of 1974) ensure and protect individuals’ right to privacy. As a direct care staff member, you should respect and protect the privacy of all children and families. When you work closely with other staff members on behalf of children and families, you may become friends with one another. You may also encounter friends and relatives of children enrolled in the center when you are out in the community. When you socialize and attend events outside of the center, you may be asked confidential information about a child by someone who is not a staff member directly working with a child. You should only share confidential information about a child only with the child’s family members and those professionals for whom the family members have signed a release of information form, such as a school district special educator, a social worker, etc. Always check with your T&CS or Program Manager if you are unsure about how to handle any situation that involves sharing information.
In the above example it would be a breach of confidentiality for Nia to tell Lani about her plans for addressing Millie’s challenging behaviors. As a direct care staff member, Nia knows she must uphold the rules of confidentiality and not share personal information about a child with someone who is not directly involved with that child. Nia knows she must always model this professional behavior and ask her coach or trainer questions when unsure about situations regarding the sharing of personal information.
You should also be very careful about how you handle social networking. Information you may choose to share on your personal page could have a long-term professional effect on you and your program's image. Photographs or information about children and families in your program should never be shared on social media. You should always consider how new technologies can affect children and families and respect confidentiality at all times.
The T&CS and Program Manager in your program have a special obligation to uphold children’s privacy and to only share confidential information with those staff members who are directly involved with a child, youth, or their family members. Program leaders observe and have knowledge about all of the children and youth, so it is especially important for them to only speak about an individual child’s behavior or family situation with those staff members who directly teach the child. You should also consider it as part of your program's conduct to not speak about an individual child or youth in front of them without including them as part of the conversation. Respecting young children and youth is vital in your relationship building. If you have a sensitive conversation to speak with the family member regarding the child, schedule a time to discuss with the family member when the child is not present.
It is your responsibility to familiarize yourself with your PUBLICprogram’s requirements for confidentiality as they pertain to children and families. Check with your T&CS or Program Manager about where and how you can access written policies about confidentiality. They may be included in staff and family handbooks or made available on your program’s website. Depending upon your PUBLICprogram’s program requirements, as a new staff member you may have to sign a confidentiality agreement, indicating that you have read and understand the program’s policies.
Upholding laws regarding confidentiality may involve in-service training for new and experienced staff members. Your Program Manager will likely want to revisit confidentiality rules during staff meetings throughout the year. It is helpful to review these policies during staff meetings and in-services specially dedicated to professional practices.
As part of your responsibility as a direct care staff member, you need to familiarize yourself with the state laws and programs rules regarding being a mandated reporter in identifying child abuse and neglect. As a new staff member, you will complete training on child abuse and neglect identification and reporting procedures. Your Program Manager will make sure that these procedures are reviewed with all staff members as part of the hiring process. Some programs may require staff to sign a form each year stating that they have reviewed the child abuse and neglect warning signs and procedures for reporting.
Acting responsibly and ethically should be at the core of your practice as a direct care staff member. In your daily interactions with children, families, colleagues, and administrators, engage in the following:
- Keep information about children and their families confidential. This refers to reviewing child and family records, having conversations with other staff members at school or in the community, or engaging in conversations with other people you know in the community.
- When you know confidential information about a child, family, or fellow staff member, you can use that information to provide resources to support their needs; do not place personal judgement on confidential information.
- If individuals ask you for confidential information about children or families in your program, refer them to your program coach or Program Manager.
- Treat each child, youth, and family member with respect, and acknowledge and honor individual differences in terms of gender, cultural background, family income, abilities, or family composition. Get to know the children and families in your care and incorporate their interests or cultural practices into your daily work as a direct care staff member. Plan for bias-free experiences and materials.
- Recognize and celebrate the contributions of fellow staff members in your program.
- Act in a responsible, reliable, and dependable manner. Be at work on time, be prepared, and communicate clearly with children, families, colleagues, and administrators.
- Support practices that are ethical, responsible, and developmentally appropriate; speak out when they are not. Familiarize yourself with your PUBLICprogram’s regulations, standards, and expectations for professional behavior. Remember to always look to your coach or administrator for guidance on difficult situations.
- Develop and cultivate a collaborative spirit as you work with colleagues on a daily basis. Ask a more experienced fellow staff member questions about their practice or offer ideas to a newer staff member who may need assistance.
Note: The contents of this Do list are also available in the Learn section attachments section. You may want to print out this information and refer to it in your daily work.
Ethical dilemmas occur from time to time when working with children, youth, and families. You need to be prepared to address these issues. Take a few minutes to respond to the questions in the Case Study Dilemma. Then, share and discuss your responses with a trainer, coach, or administrator.
Use the Professionalism and Ethics Resources activity in this section to learn about more resources available to support your growth as a professional.
Bruno, H.E., & Copeland, T. (2012). Managing Legal Risks in Early Childhood Programs. New York: Teachers College Press.
Feeney, S. (2010). Ethics Today in Early Care and Education: Review, reflection, and the future. Young Children, 65(2), 72-77.
Feeney, S., Freeman, N.K., & Pizzolongo, P. (2012). Ethics and the Early Childhood Educator: Using
The NAEYC code (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
National After School Association (2009). National After School Association Code of Ethics. Retrieved from https://naaweb.org/resources/code-of-ethics
National Association for the Education of Young Children (2011). Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/image/public_policy/Ethics%20Position%20Statement2011_09202013update.pdf