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    • Learn about the importance of working together to create positive experiences to strengthen the management of your infant and toddler classroom.
    • Discuss the significance of working collaboratively with families in the day-to-day operation of your classroom.
    • Reflect on practices that highlight working as a team to care for infants, toddlers and their families.




    "Unity is strength…when there is teamwork and collaboration, wonderful things can be achieved." - Mattie Stepanek

    As you reflected on your abilities to manage day-to-day experiences or activities in your life, in the previous lesson, you probably acknowledged that working with others is to some degree part of your daily routine and helps get things done. We are by nature social beings and our relationships with others greatly affect our personal and professional lives. Think about your daily life and how working with others helps you when sharing household responsibilities, taking care of children, taking care of parents or other loved ones, or taking care of yourself.

    Collaboration is a dynamic process in which individuals come together and share their knowledge, experiences, resources, and strengths to promote growth and development. When it comes to caring for infants and toddlers, these individuals are family members, caregivers like yourself, related service providers, administrators, and community partners. Collaboration builds on the expertise, interests, and strengths of everyone involved in the process. By acknowledging that each of these individuals has something meaningful to offer, collaboration creates opportunities to set goals and objectives, make plans for implementing those goals, monitor progress, and solve problems jointly. It assumes the thinking that "all of us are smarter than one of us" (Turnbull, Turnbull, Shank, & Smith, 2004, p. 80. The goal of collaboration is to ensure progress and growth for each infant and toddler, their family, and ultimately, your classroom and program.

    The Process of Creating Collaborative Teams

    Like everything else we do, learning to work with others is a skill that does not develop overnight. On the contrary, it is a process that takes place over time. Just like when you are learning any new skill or experience you have to invest time and effort in getting to know information and practicing new things, being able to work well with others requires ongoing work, energy, and commitment. Remember that each person you engage with is a unique individual. In your daily interactions with infants, toddlers, families, and colleagues, you always bring who you are: your interests, your personality, your temperament, your background experiences, and your special abilities and talents. The way you view yourself as a team member can define your interactions and relationships with infants, toddlers, families, and colleagues. When you work together with colleagues and families, the time spent on collaboration can benefit infants, toddlers, their families, as well as yourself.

    Building collaborative relationships takes time, effort, and attention, but often has meaningful outcomes in terms of enhancing the overall quality of your program. As you work with fellow infant-toddler providers, your T&Cs, or managers, you should have opportunities to share successes as well as challenges with each other. You may also see these experiences as opportunities to make new friends and network with others who have similar interests with you.

    Two of the country's leading experts on building collaborative teams, Jacqueline Thousand and Richard Villa, identify five elements as critically important in creating a collaborative process. (Johnson & Johnson, 1997; Thousand & Villa, 1990, 2000, p. 258). As you read these, think about how they reflect your experiences with collaboration in your program:

    1. Face-to-face interaction among team members on a frequent basis
    2. A mutual "we are all in this together" feeling of positive interdependence
    3. A focus on the development of small-group interpersonal skills in trust building, communication, leadership, creative problem solving, decision making, and conflict management
    4. Regular assessments and discussion of the team's functioning in setting goals for improving relationships and effectively accomplishing tasks
    5. Methods for holding one another accountable for agreed-on responsibilities and commitments

    In your daily work, you make conscious, intentional decisions about how to interact in daily encounters with infants and toddlers, family members, and colleagues. Being part of a team requires that you enter partnerships with a positive attitude and commitment to ethical behavior. No matter how experienced you are, being part of a collaborative workplace should be central to your practice as an infant-toddler provider. Child-care settings are primarily people-centric workplaces. The biggest resources are people. The outcomes should be happy, secure infants, toddlers, and their families.

    Collaborating with Families

    Family-professional partnerships are a central part of your work as an infant-toddler provider. One key feature of a successful family-professional partnership is a sense of equality between family members and professionals (Turnbull et al., 2004). As highlighted in the Professionalism Course, individuals who deal directly with human welfare have a special obligation to behave in ways that benefit those they serve. Values that are foundational to professions based on human relationships are caring, compassion, empathy, respect for others, and trustworthiness (Feeney, 2012). Effective infant and toddler providers above all are dedicated to serving the needs of the young children and families they work with. Your program’s parent handbook is the ideal place to share with parents your program’s vision, philosophy and offerings. Your program should also have a clearly articulated shared mission and philosophy that is demonstrated by everyone who works in the program and that all staff understand. You should familiarize yourself with this mission and philosophy.

    When discussing family-professional relationships, Janice Fialka, in her highly regarded The Dance of Partnership: Why Do My Feet Hurt? (2001), compares collaboration with dancing. She reflects on her experiences as a social worker and as a parent of a child with disabilities and shares the complexities of the dancing-collaborating experience. At times, she notes, her professional partners and she do not seem to be gracefully moving together across the floor, their movements seem awkward, stiff, and uncoordinated, as if each partner is dancing to different music. Sometimes the partners may even step on each other's feet while trying to figure out what to do next. She notes, however, how important it is to have each partner's perspectives, hopes, dreams, and expectations be heard, valued, and respected at different times during the dance.

    In your daily work, in order to truly get to know an infant or toddler in your care, you have to get to know their family. In this process, you need to be open-minded, flexible, and genuinely interested in order to make a difference.

    There are several positive outcomes of collaboration between you and family members. During this process, families become active participants, share valuable information, and work with you to promote their infant's or toddler's optimum development. You get a window into each family's dreams, hopes, and aspirations for their young child and a better understanding of where they come from, what they need, and what their vision is for their young child and family.

    Reflecting on your Own Experiences and Practices

    High-quality environments for children cannot be created unless these environments are also good for the adults who work in them. Education professor Lilian Katz, in Talks with Teachers of Young Children (1995) urges professionals to ask themselves the questions below. As you read each of these questions, think about how things are in your own work environment.

    On the whole, are relationships with my colleagues:

    • Supportive rather than contentious?
    • Cooperative rather than competitive?
    • Accepting rather than adversarial?
    • Trusting rather than suspicious?
    • Respectful rather than controlling?

    Effective infant- toddler providers value collaboration and acknowledge it is important to work together with families, other staff members, and supervisors to be successful. They know it is important to critically think about their practices with infants, toddlers, and families, and to make changes when needed. They also know it is important to celebrate successes and acknowledge the efforts of others, like family members and colleagues, in their daily work. Your program may plan joyful events that build community at different levels: among the staff, as well as among staff, children and families (e.g., acknowledging individual staff members during staff meetings, celebrating staff birthdays and life events with potluck suppers, attending a professional conference together, organizing family nights, inviting families to participate in classroom and program experiences, inviting families to spend time with children in the classroom).

    While working with others is one of the most rewarding parts of your job, it can also present challenges. It requires dedication, commitment, problem-solving skills, and a willingness to learn, change, and be flexible in order to address the multiple and often complex needs of those in your care. It is your responsibility to maintain professional conduct and seek the advice of your T&C or manager when faced with difficult situations you are not sure how to deal with.


    Working as a Team

    Watch this video to learn about collaborating with others in your work.


    Take time to review the practices listed below, which highlight working as a team to care for infants, toddlers, and their families:

    • Respect each infant or toddler in your care and their families and acknowledge diversity and individual differences in growth, background, beliefs, and values. Invite and include each family in planning and decision-making about their child's development and learning. Make sure every family has an opportunity to share their views or ideas with you.
    • Meet regularly with colleagues to plan experiences for infants, toddlers, and their families. Regular meetings allow you to discuss children's progress, plan experiences, and make necessary changes.
    • Ask clarifying questions when not sure about something. Miscommunication can lead to unnecessary frustrations, delays in getting things done, and a negative work climate. As a team member, make sure you have a clear understanding of procedures, rules, or regulations, and always talk to your T&C or supervisor when in doubt.
    • Share ongoing observational information on each infant and toddler in your care with colleagues and family members and use that information to plan for individual children and your group. Invite families' input when planning.
    • Provide a variety of developmentally appropriate choices and experiences for children in your care.
    • Have developmentally appropriate expectations about children's behaviors and be proactive when dealing with challenging behaviors.
    • Be open-minded and use creative thinking skills, like brainstorming, when planning or problem-solving. Be willing to see others' viewpoints and consider multiple options or solutions when tackling a problem or challenge.
    • Most importantly, have a good attitude and demonstrate respect for each individual you collaborate with. Appreciate each member of your team and welcome the knowledge, experience, or expertise that each has to offer.



    Download and print the handout Working as a Team. Take some time to read the identified article, and respond to the questions. Then, share and discuss your responses with a T&C or supervisor.



    Use the resources in the handout Collaboration to learn more about working with parents and family members. Think about new ways to involve families in their children’s care and share your ideas with your T&C.




    What are some positive outcomes of collaborating with families in your program?


    Which of the following practices encourage infant-toddler professionals to work together as a team?


    True or false? Collaboration happens when different individuals come together and let others know the best way to promote growth and development.

    References & Resources

    Allred, K. W., & Hancock, C. L. (2015). Reconciling Leadership and Partnership: Strategies to empower professionals and families. Young Children, 70(2), 46-53.

    Baker, A. C., & Manfredi/Petitt L. A. (2004). Relationships, the Heart of Quality Care: Creating community among adults in early care settings . Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

    Bernhardt, J. L. (2000). A Primary Caregiving System for Infants and Toddlers: Best for everyone involved. Young Children 55(2): 74-80.

    Dance of Partnership. Retrieved from

    Division for Early Childhood. (2014). DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education 2014. Retrieved from

    Fialka, J. (2001). The Dance of Partnership: Why do my feet hurt? Young Exceptional Children, 4(2), 21-27.

    Godwin, A., & Schrag, L. (1996). Building Relationships with Parents. In Setting Up for Infant/Toddler Care: Guidelines for Centers and Family Child Care Homes (pp. 51-52). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

    Hanson, M. J., & Lynch, E. W. (2004). Understanding Families: Approaches to diversity, disability, and risk. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

    Harry, B., Kalyanpur, M., & Day, M. (1999). Building Cultural Reciprocity With Families: Case studies in special education. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

    Harvard Family Research Project (2013). Family Involvement. Retrieved from

    Feeney, S. (2012). Professionalism in Early Childhood Education: Doing our best for young children. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

    Howes, C., & Ritchie, S. (2002). A Matter of Trust: Connecting teachers and learners in the early childhood classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, F.P. (1997). Joining together: Group theory and skills (6th ed.). Needham Heights, Ma: Allyn & Bacon.

    Kalyanpur, M., & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in Special Education: Building reciprocal family-professional relationships. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

    Katz, L. K. (1995). Talks with Teachers of Young Children: A collection. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

    Keyser, J. (2007). From Parents to Partners: Building a family-centered early childhood program. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.

    Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (2004). Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A guide for working with young children and their families, 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. Engaging Diverse Families. 

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). NAEYC Standards for Early Childhood Professional Preparation: A position statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Retrieved from

    Simon, F. (2015). Look up and out to lead: 20/20 vision for effective leadership. Young Children, 70(2), 18-24.

    Sullivan, D. R. (2010). Learning to Lead: Effective leadership skills for teachers of young children (2nd ed.). St. Paul MN: Redleaf Press.

    Thousand, J.S., & Villa, R.A. (1990). Strategies for educating learners with severe handicaps within their local home schools and communities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 23(3), 1-25.

    Thousand, J.S., & Villa, R.A. (2000). Collaborative teaming: A powerful tool in school restructuring. In R.A. Villa & J.S. Thousand (Eds.), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle (pp. 254-292). Baltimore:Brookes

    Turnbull, A. P., Turbiville, V., & Turnbull, H. R. (2000). Evolution of Family-Professional Partnerships: Collective empowerment as the model for the early twenty-first century. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.). Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention (pp. 630-650). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

    Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., Erwin, E. J., & Soodak, L. C. (2006). Families, Professionals, and Exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

    Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., Shank, M., & Smith, S. J. (2004). Exceptional Lives: Special education in Today's Schools, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.